Reference Genome Annotation Initiative

Reference Genome Annotation Initiative

This initiative, coordinated by the Gene Ontology Consortium ( ), is a collaboration between twelve database groups whose aim is to provide comprehensive GO annotation for all gene products in each of twelve key or ‘reference’ genomes, thus providing a basis for automatically annotating less well-studied genomes.

For more information on this project, please visit the GO Consortium’s website;

UniProt-GOA’s role

UniProt-GOA’s role in the Reference Genome project is to provide manual annotation to the human proteome, scientific literature which can provide experimentally-supported evidence for a protein’s functional attributes are preferentially annotated.

The UniProt-GOA group is assisted in this effort by the BHF-UCL curation group.

As UniProt-GOA provides GO annotation to the UniProt Knowledgebase, UniProtKB accessions are the primary sequence identifier used. Once a protein has been comprehensively annotated, UniProt-GOA curators perform a sequence similarity search to find highly similar proteins in other species. The manual annotations can then be copied to these orthologous proteins using the ISS (Inferred from Sequence or structural Similarity) evidence code, this helps provide annotation to less well-studied species which have no dedicated annotation effort.

For a description of UniProt-GOA’s manual annotation workflow, please see the Manual Annotation Efforts page.

For more information on GO Evidence Codes, please see the Evidence Code Guide .

UniProt-GOA participates in the regular conference calls and annotation jamborees held by the Reference Genome group, enabling discussion of annotations and helping with annotation consistency between the different groups.


Target List

Targets are assigned on a monthly basis (20-30 per month), each database receives the same targets but only curates the ortholog(s) present in their species. Figure 1 shows the number of human protein targets annotated by UniProt-GOA each year since the project started.

Target List

Fig. 1. Number of human proteins comprehensively annotated by
UniProt-GOA per year of the Reference Genome project

Access to Reference Genome annotations

View the list of human proteins annotated as part of the Reference Genome Annotation Initiative here;

View the GO annotations to the human Reference Genomes targets in QuickGO .

Gene products previously annotated as part of the Reference Genome project can be viewed here;

The Reference Genome homolog sets and their associated annotations can be viewed in the GO Consortium’s GO browser AmiGO .

If you have any questions or comments on the Reference Genomes project, please contact .


UniProt-GOA collaborates with

Cardiovascular Gene Ontology Annotation Initiative DictyBase Ensembl Compara Enzyme Nomenclature FlyBase  GO Consortium logo GUDMAP Gramene HAMAP HGNC HPA IntAct InterPro LIFEdb MGI MTBbase logo Reactome RI RGD SGD SwissProt TAIR TIGR WormBase ZFIN The Evidence & Conclusion Ontology