Please note that we have stopped the regular imports of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data into ArrayExpress. This may not be the latest version of this experiment.
E-GEOD-70991 - Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas
Released on 23 December 2015, last updated on 26 December 2015
Gain-of-function IDH mutations define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a novel onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), that interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylase enzymes, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes are critical for the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), though the functional significance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that IDH1 mutant gliomas exhibit hyper-methylation at CTCF binding sites, leading to reduced binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Loss of CTCF binding is associated with a loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to aberrantly interact with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and reduces PDGFRA expression. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF binding sequence in IDH wildtype gliomaspheres induces PDGFRA expression and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression. CTCF occupancy characterization and histone H3K27 acetylation profiling in IDH1 mutant and wild-type glioma patient specimens and culture models. ChIP-seq raw data is to be made available through dbGaP (controlled access) due to patient privacy concerns.
Yotam Natan Drier <email@example.com>, Bradley E Bernstein, William A Flavahan, Yotam Drier