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E-GEOD-64891 - Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour arising in the spinal cord: a case report and molecular profiling
Released on 13 July 2015, last updated on 19 August 2015
Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a very recent entity, recognized in the latest WHO classification of Central Nervous System Tumors. It is composed by two distinct features: a glial component, with typical characteristics of pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes, with eosinophilic regions positive for synaptofisin and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in a peculiar location, namely the spinal cord. We further performed an extensive immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. The histology revealed a WHO grade I RGNT typically found in the fourth-ventricle. Immunoreactivity for synaptophysin and neurofilament protein was noted in the neurocytic component, whereas the glial component exhibited positivity for GFAP and S-100. Neurocytic component was found negative for GFAP. Mitoses were rare, and there was no necrosis present. Across all mutational analyses, there were detected somatic mutations in 4 genes: MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. The tumor exhibited a microsatellite stable (MSS) phenotype. Array-CGH (aCGH) showed loss in 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in the chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 14, 17, 22 and 23. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 (region with no genes mapped) and 19p13.3 (region encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Additionally, we verified the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, typically found in pilocytic astrocytomas, through aCGH, RT-PCR and FISH. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of a RGNT case suggests the existence of a unique genetic pathway for the development of these tumors: KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is a possible driver by constitutively activating MAPK pathway, and MLL2 mutation may lead to profound changes in the methylome. Taken together, these mechanisms may increase survival and/or tumorigenic capacity of cells, leading to the development of this rare entity. Two-color Agilent 8x60K array CGH (aCGH) was performed in the rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour (CY3) and reference DNA (CY5 - DNA extracted from leucocytes of the patient).
comparative genomic hybridization by array
Rui Manuel Reis <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Alan MacKay, Bernd W Scheithauer, Carlos Clara, Chris Jones, Cristovam S Neto, Gisele C Almeida, Gustavo N Berardinelli, Leonir T Feltrin, Lucas T Bidinotto, Marileila Garcia Varella, Marta Viana-Pereira, Raul Torrieri, Rui M Reis