Please note that we have stopped the regular imports of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data into ArrayExpress. This may not be the latest version of this experiment.
E-GEOD-52204 - A Global Approach to Dissect Palmitate-induced Impairment of Hepatic Glucose Production
Released on 8 November 2013, last updated on 23 July 2015
Obesity-induced insulin resistance of the liver is characterised by increased gluconeogenesis, which contributes to elevated blood glucose levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Research into how fatty acids induce insulin resistance has commonly focused on the induction of insulin resistance. We hypothesise that by shifting focus to the reversal of an insulin resistant phenotype, novel insights can be made into the mechanisms by which insulin resistance can be overcome. Using global gene and lipid expression profiling, we aimed to identify biological pathways altered in parallel with restoration of palmitate-induced deregulation of glucose production using metformin and sodium salicylate. FAO hepatoma cells were treated with palmitate (0.075mM, 48h) with or without metformin (0.25mM) and sodium salicylate (2mM) in the final 24h of palmitate treatment, and effects on glucose production were determined. Microarray followed by gene set enrichment analysis was performed to investigate pathway regulation. A lipidomic analysis (HPLC-MS/MS) and measurement of secreted bile acids and cholesterol were performed. Reversal of palmitate-induced impairment of glucose production by metformin and sodium salicylate was characterised by down-regulated expression of metabolic pathways regulating acetyl-CoA to cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis. Total levels of intracellular and secreted cholesterol and bile acids were not different between impaired and restored glucose production. Total intracellular levels of diacylgycerol, triacylglycerol and cholesterol esters increased with palmitate (impaired glucose production), however, these were not further altered with metformin and sodium salicylate (restored glucose production). Six individual lipid species containing 18:0 and 18:1 side-chains were reduced by metformin and sodium salicylate. Widespread lipid metabolism changes induced by the reversal of palmitate-induced deregulation of glucose production with metformin and sodium salicylate were identified. While cholesterol and bile acid levels remained unchanged, the flux through these pathways may in part explain these findings. The identification of lipid species containing 18:0 and 18:1 side chains being regulated alongside changes to glucose production may indicate potential mediators of glucose production and insulin resistance. Three-condition experiment, Vehicle, Palmitate (PA) and Palmitate (PA) + Metformin (Met) + Sodium Sailcylate (NaS) with biological replicates: 8 Vehicle, 20 PA and 20 PA+Met+NaS , independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
transcription profiling by array
Bradley Hayward <email@example.com>, Andrew Sanigorski, Brad Hayward, Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer, Juan-Carlos Molero, Kelly Windmill, Ken R Walder, Nicky Konstantopoulos, Peter Meikle