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E-GEOD-4813 - Spo13 facilitates monopolin recruitment to kinetochores and regulates maintenance of centromeric cohesion
Released on 11 June 2010, last updated on 27 March 2012
BACKGROUND: Cells undergoing meiosis perform two consecutive divisions after a single round of DNA replication. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes segregate to opposite poles. This is achieved by (1) the pairing of maternal and paternal chromosomes via recombination producing chiasmata, (2) coorientation of homologous chromosomes such that sister chromatids attach to the same spindle pole, and (3) resolution of chiasmata by proteolytic cleavage by separase of the meiotic-specific cohesin Rec8 along chromosome arms. Crucially, cohesin at centromeres is retained to allow sister centromeres to biorient at the second division. Little is known about how these meiosis I-specific events are regulated. RESULTS: Here, we show that Spo13, a centromere-associated protein produced exclusively during meiosis I, is required to prevent sister kinetochore biorientation by facilitating the recruitment of the monopolin complex to kinetochores. Spo13 is also required for the reaccumulation of securin, the persistence of centromeric cohesin during meiosis II, and the maintenance of a metaphase I arrest induced by downregulation of the APC/C activator CDC20. CONCLUSION: Spo13 is a key regulator of several meiosis I events. The presence of Spo13 at centromere-surrounding regions is consistent with the notion that it plays a direct role in both monopolin recruitment to centromeres during meiosis I and maintenance of centromeric cohesion between the meiotic divisions. Spo13 may also limit separase activity after the first division by ensuring securin reaccumulation and, in doing so, preventing precocious removal from chromatin of centromeric cohesin. Keywords: Meiosis, Cell cycle, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Chromosome VI tiling array, Spo13, ChIP-chip • Experimental factors Distribution of the Spo13 at Meiosis I. Experiment was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae SK1 strain. • Experimental design ChIP analysis: Hybridization data for ChIP fraction was compared with that of SUP (supernatant) fraction. Cerevisiae chromosome VI array was used. • Quality control steps taken Checking of the ChIP fraction by Western blotting. Mock hybridisation of samples immunoprecipitated from cells containing no tag recognized by antibody used. Sup swapping. Samples used, extract preparation and labelling: • The origin of each biological sample Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SK1). • Manipulation of biological samples and protocols used Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and hybridization to Affimetrix high-density oligonucleotide arrays of S. cerevisiae chromosome VIwere performed essentially as previously described (Katou et al., 2003, nature) (Lengronne et al., 2004, nature). • Technical protocols for preparing the hybridization extract The chromatin-immunprecipates were eluted and incubated over night at 65ºC to reverse the cross-link. Immunoprecipitated genomic DNA was incubated with proteinase K, extracted 2 times with phenol/chloroform/isoamylalcohol, precipitated, resuspended in TE and incubated with RnaseA. The DNA was then purified using the Qiagen PCR purification kit, and concentrated by ethanol precipitation. The DNA was amplified by PCR after random priming. 10 ug of amplified DNA was digested with Dnase I to a mean size of 100 bp. After Dnase I inactivation at 95ºC. DNA fragments were end-labeled by addition of 25 U of Terminal Transferase and 1 nmol Biotin-N6ddATP (NEN) for 1 hour at 37ºC as previously described by Winzeler et al. (Science. 281, 1194-1197, 1998). The entire sample was used for hybridization. • Hybridization procedures and parameters: Hybridization, blocking and washing were carried out as previously described (Lengronne et al. Nature 2004). Each sample was hybridized to the array in 150 ul containing 6xSSPE; 0.005% TritonX-100; 15 ug fragmented denatured salmon sperm DNA (Gibco-BRL); 1 nmole 3’biotin labelled control oligonucleotide (oligo B2, Affymetrix). Samples were denatured at 100ºC for 10 minutes, and then put on ice before being hybridized for 16 hours at 42ºC in a hybridization oven (GeneChip Hybridization Oven 640, Affymetrix). Washing and scanning protocol provided by Affymetrix was performed automatically on a fluidics station (GeneChip fluidics station 450, Affymetrix). • Measurement data and specifications: Arrays were scanned using the Genechip Scanner3000 7G following the library array description. All the cel files data and processed data files can be downloaded from GEO database. The primary analysis of tiling chip data was performed following exactly the statistical algorithm used for Affymetrix GeneChip Operating Software (GCOS). The detailed information for the algorithm used can be downloaded from the Affymetrix web site. The analysis is available on request. For the ChrVI array, one unit for analysis (locus) was set to 300bp. Fold change value, change p-value, and detection p-value for each locus were obtained by primary analysis. For the discrimination of positive and negative signals for the binding, we used three criteria as follows. First, the reliability of the signal strength was judged by detection p-value of each locus (p-value≤0.025). Secondly, reliability of binding ratio was judged by change p-value (p-value≤0.0025). Thirdly, clusters consisting of at least 900bp contiguous loci that satisfied the above two criteria were selected, because it is known that a single site of protein-DNA interaction resulted in immuno-precipitation of DNA fragments that hybridized not only to the locus of the actual binding site but also to its neighbors. • Array Design: General array design: in situ synthesized arrays by Affymetrix Availability of arrays: commercially available from Affymetrix Location and ID of each spot on arrays: available from Affymetrix on request Probe type: oligonucleotide The arrays used in this study can be purchased from Affymetrix: Chromosome VI S.cerevisiae: rikDACFC6, P/N# 510636 GSM108198 was used for normalization of GSM108511.
unknown experiment type
Katsuhiko Shirahige, Kim Nasmyth, Saori Mori, Vittorio L Katis
Spo13 facilitates monopolin recruitment to kinetochores and regulates maintenance of centromeric cohesion during yeast meiosis. Katis VL, Matos J, Mori S, Shirahige K, Zachariae W, Nasmyth K.