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E-GEOD-21791 - Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rat Study - Diaphragm vs. Sternohyoid
Released on 12 May 2014, last updated on 30 April 2015
Type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes in its pathogenesis. Type 1 diabetic diaphragm has altered gene expression which includes lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, ubiquitination and oxidoreductase activity. The objectives of the present study were to assess respiratory muscle gene expression changes in type 2 diabetes and to determine whether they are greater for the diaphragm than an upper airway muscle. Diaphragm and sternohyoid muscle from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were analyzed with Affymetrix gene expression arrays. The two muscles had 97 and 102 genes, respectively, with at least ±1.5-fold significantly changed expression with diabetes, and these were assigned to gene ontology groups based on over-representation analysis. Several significantly changed groups were common to both muscles, including lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, muscle contraction, ion transport and collagen, although the number of genes and the specific genes involved differed considerably for the two muscles. In both muscles there was a shift in metabolism gene expression from carbohydrate metabolism toward lipid metabolism, but the shift was greater and involved more genes in diabetic diaphragm than diabetic sternohyoid muscle. Groups present in only diaphragm were blood circulation and oxidoreductase activity. Groups present in only sternohyoid were immune & inflammation and response to stress & wounding, with complement genes being a prominent component. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes-induced gene expression changes in respiratory muscles has both similarities and differences relative to previous data on type 1 diabetes gene expression. Furthermore, the diabetic alterations in gene expression differ between diaphragm and sternohyoid. 18-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats: 6 normal and 5 diabetic diaphragms and sternohyoids.
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Erik -- van Lunteren <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Erik van Lunteren, Michelle Moyer