PDBsum entry 1fos

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protein dna_rna Protein-protein interface(s) links
Transcription/DNA PDB id
Protein chains
60 a.a. *
57 a.a. *
58 a.a. *
* Residue conservation analysis
PDB id:
Name: Transcription/DNA
Title: Two human c-fos:c-jun:dna complexes
Structure: DNA (5'- d( Ap Ap Tp Gp Gp Ap Tp Gp Ap Gp Tp Cp Ap Tp Ap Gp Gp Ap Gp A)-3'). Chain: a, c. Engineered: yes. DNA (5'- d( Tp Tp Cp Tp Cp Cp Tp Ap Tp Gp Ap Cp Tp Cp Ap Tp Cp Cp Ap T)-3'). Chain: b, d.
Source: Synthetic: yes. Homo sapiens. Human. Organism_taxid: 9606. Expressed in: escherichia coli. Expression_system_taxid: 562.
Biol. unit: Dimer (from PQS)
3.05Å     R-factor:   0.230     R-free:   0.321
Authors: J.N.M.Glover,S.C.Harrison
Key ref: J.N.Glover and S.C.Harrison (1995). Crystal structure of the heterodimeric bZIP transcription factor c-Fos-c-Jun bound to DNA. Nature, 373, 257-261. PubMed id: 7816143
07-Mar-95     Release date:   10-Jul-95    
Go to PROCHECK summary

Protein chains
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P01100  (FOS_HUMAN) -  Proto-oncogene c-Fos
380 a.a.
60 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P05412  (JUN_HUMAN) -  Transcription factor AP-1
331 a.a.
57 a.a.*
Protein chain
Pfam   ArchSchema ?
P05412  (JUN_HUMAN) -  Transcription factor AP-1
331 a.a.
58 a.a.*
Key:    PfamA domain  PfamB domain  Secondary structure  CATH domain
* PDB and UniProt seqs differ at 3 residue positions (black crosses)

 Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation 
  GO annot!
  Cellular component     nucleus   1 term 
  Biological process     regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent   1 term 
  Biochemical function     DNA binding     3 terms  


Nature 373:257-261 (1995)
PubMed id: 7816143  
Crystal structure of the heterodimeric bZIP transcription factor c-Fos-c-Jun bound to DNA.
J.N.Glover, S.C.Harrison.
The Fos and Jun families of eukaryotic transcription factors heterodimerize to form complexes capable of binding 5'-TGAGTCA-3' DNA elements. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of a heterodimer of the bZIP regions of c-Fos and c-Jun bound to DNA. Both subunits form continuous alpha-helices. The carboxy-terminal regions form an asymmetric coiled-coil, and the amino-terminal regions make base-specific contacts with DNA in the major groove. Comparison of the two crystallographically distinct protein-DNA complexes show that the coiled-coil is flexibly joined to the basic regions and that the Fos-Jun heterodimer does not recognize the asymmetric 5'-TGAGTCA-3' recognition element in a unique orientation. There is an extensive network of electrostatic interactions between subunits within the coiled-coil, consistent with proposals that these interactions determine preferential formation of the heterodimer over either of the homodimers.

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21199371 J.A.Worrall, and J.M.Mason (2011).
Thermodynamic analysis of Jun-Fos coiled coil peptide antagonists.
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21417953 M.F.Maritz, P.J.van der Watt, N.Holderness, M.J.Birrer, and V.D.Leaner (2011).
Inhibition of AP-1 suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation and is associated with p21 expression.
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21354428 T.S.Chen, A.W.Reinke, and A.E.Keating (2011).
Design of peptide inhibitors that bind the bZIP domain of Epstein-Barr virus protein BZLF1.
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21049125 V.N.Uversky (2011).
Multitude of binding modes attainable by intrinsically disordered proteins: a portrait gallery of disorder-based complexes.
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21069729 X.Li, and P.LuValle (2011).
Activating transcription factor 2 targets c-Fos, but not c-Jun, in growth plate chondrocytes.
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20676430 B.Apostolovic, M.Danial, and H.A.Klok (2010).
Coiled coils: attractive protein folding motifs for the fabrication of self-assembled, responsive and bioactive materials.
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20148391 C.Rodrigues-Pousada, R.A.Menezes, and C.Pimentel (2010).
The Yap family and its role in stress response.
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20086039 J.Xu, A.T.De Jong, G.Chen, H.K.Chow, C.O.Damaso, A.Schwartz Mittelman, and J.A.Shin (2010).
Reengineering natural design by rational design and in vivo library selection: the HLH subdomain in bHLHZ proteins is a unique requirement for DNA-binding function.
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20331972 K.L.Seldeen, C.B.McDonald, B.J.Deegan, V.Bhat, and A.Farooq (2010).
Dissecting the role of leucine zippers in the binding of bZIP domains of Jun transcription factor to DNA.
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20886097 M.Bergbauer, M.Kalla, A.Schmeinck, C.Göbel, U.Rothbauer, S.Eck, A.Benet-Pagès, T.M.Strom, and W.Hammerschmidt (2010).
CpG-methylation regulates a class of Epstein-Barr virus promoters.
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20380707 M.S.Almén, J.A.Jacobsson, J.H.Shaik, P.K.Olszewski, J.Cedernaes, J.Alsiö, S.Sreedharan, A.S.Levine, R.Fredriksson, C.Marcus, and H.B.Schiöth (2010).
The obesity gene, TMEM18, is of ancient origin, found in majority of neuronal cells in all major brain regions and associated with obesity in severely obese children.
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20392257 R.St-Arnaud, V.Mandic, and B.Elchaarani (2010).
FIAT, the factor-inhibiting ATF4-mediated transcription, also represses the transcriptional activity of the bZIP factor FRA-1.
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19002610 A.Seidi, M.Mie, and E.Kobatake (2009).
Recombination system based on cre alpha complementation and leucine zipper fusions.
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19797082 H.Kurokawa, H.Motohashi, S.Sueno, M.Kimura, H.Takagawa, Y.Kanno, M.Yamamoto, and T.Tanaka (2009).
Structural basis of alternative DNA recognition by Maf transcription factors.
  Mol Cell Biol, 29, 6232-6244.
PDB code: 3a5t
19215067 K.L.Seldeen, C.B.McDonald, B.J.Deegan, and A.Farooq (2009).
Single nucleotide variants of the TGACTCA motif modulate energetics and orientation of binding of the Jun-Fos heterodimeric transcription factor.
  Biochemistry, 48, 1975-1983.  
19921846 K.L.Seldeen, C.B.McDonald, B.J.Deegan, V.Bhat, and A.Farooq (2009).
DNA plasticity is a key determinant of the energetics of binding of Jun-Fos heterodimeric transcription factor to genetic variants of TGACGTCA motif.
  Biochemistry, 48, 12213-12222.  
19519454 M.Miller (2009).
The importance of being flexible: the case of basic region leucine zipper transcriptional regulators.
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19656299 O.Etxebeste, E.Herrero-García, L.Araújo-Bazán, A.B.Rodríguez-Urra, A.Garzia, U.Ugalde, and E.A.Espeso (2009).
The bZIP-type transcription factor FlbB regulates distinct morphogenetic stages of colony formation in Aspergillus nidulans.
  Mol Microbiol, 73, 775-789.  
19726496 S.Lindert, M.Silvestry, T.M.Mullen, G.R.Nemerow, and P.L.Stewart (2009).
Cryo-electron microscopy structure of an adenovirus-integrin complex indicates conformational changes in both penton base and integrin.
  J Virol, 83, 11491-11501.  
19571180 W.L.Liu, R.A.Coleman, E.Ma, P.Grob, J.L.Yang, Y.Zhang, G.Dailey, E.Nogales, and R.Tjian (2009).
Structures of three distinct activator-TFIID complexes.
  Genes Dev, 23, 1510-1521.  
19255142 Z.Yuan, S.Gong, J.Luo, Z.Zheng, B.Song, S.Ma, J.Guo, C.Hu, G.Thiel, C.Vinson, C.D.Hu, Y.Wang, and M.Li (2009).
Opposing roles for ATF2 and c-Fos in c-Jun-mediated neuronal apoptosis.
  Mol Cell Biol, 29, 2431-2442.  
19780836 Z.Yuchi, V.P.Pau, B.X.Lu, M.Junop, and D.S.Yang (2009).
An engineered right-handed coiled coil domain imparts extreme thermostability to the KcsA channel.
  FEBS J, 276, 6236-6246.  
17968678 B.Maggio, G.A.Borioli, M.Del Boca, L.De Tullio, M.L.Fanani, R.G.Oliveira, C.M.Rosetti, and N.Wilke (2008).
Composition-driven surface domain structuring mediated by sphingolipids and membrane-active proteins. Above the nano- but under the micro-scale: mesoscopic biochemical/structural cross-talk in biomembranes.
  Cell Biochem Biophys, 50, 79.  
17926144 C.T.Yu, J.C.Wu, M.C.Liao, S.L.Hsu, and C.Y.Huang (2008).
Identification of c-Fos as a mitotic phosphoprotein: regulation of c-Fos by Aurora-A.
  J Biomed Sci, 15, 79-87.  
18566588 E.P.Lamber, L.Vanhille, L.C.Textor, G.S.Kachalova, M.H.Sieweke, and M.Wilmanns (2008).
Regulation of the transcription factor Ets-1 by DNA-mediated homo-dimerization.
  EMBO J, 27, 2006-2017.
PDB code: 2nny
18065450 G.Vámosi, N.Baudendistel, C.W.von der Lieth, N.Szalóki, G.Mocsár, G.Müller, P.Brázda, W.Waldeck, S.Damjanovich, J.Langowski, and K.Tóth (2008).
Conformation of the c-Fos/c-Jun complex in vivo: a combined FRET, FCCS, and MD-modeling study.
  Biophys J, 94, 2859-2868.  
18949049 H.K.Chow, J.Xu, S.H.Shahravan, A.T.De Jong, G.Chen, and J.A.Shin (2008).
Hybrids of the bHLH and bZIP protein motifs display different DNA-binding activities in vivo vs. in vitro.
  PLoS ONE, 3, e3514.  
18940179 K.L.Seldeen, C.B.McDonald, B.J.Deegan, and A.Farooq (2008).
Evidence that the bZIP domains of the Jun transcription factor bind to DNA as monomers prior to folding and homodimerization.
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18718539 N.A.Ciaccio, M.L.Moreno, R.L.Bauer, and J.S.Laurence (2008).
High-yield expression in E. coli and refolding of the bZIP domain of activating transcription factor 5.
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18418686 S.H.Fatemi, T.J.Reutiman, T.D.Folsom, and R.W.Sidwell (2008).
The role of cerebellar genes in pathology of autism and schizophrenia.
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18791711 X.Y.Wang, C.F.Song, W.G.Miao, Z.L.Ji, X.Wang, Y.Zhang, J.H.Zhang, J.S.Hu, W.Borth, and J.S.Wang (2008).
Mutations in the N-terminal coding region of the harpin protein Hpa1 from Xanthomonas oryzae cause loss of hypersensitive reaction induction in tobacco.
  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 81, 359-369.  
18587386 Y.Aikawa, K.Morimoto, T.Yamamoto, H.Chaki, A.Hashiramoto, H.Narita, S.Hirono, and S.Shiozawa (2008).
Treatment of arthritis with a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1.
  Nat Biotechnol, 26, 817-823.  
17283046 B.Grondin, M.Lefrancois, M.Tremblay, M.Saint-Denis, A.Haman, K.Waga, A.Bédard, D.G.Tenen, and T.Hoang (2007).
c-Jun homodimers can function as a context-specific coactivator.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 2919-2933.  
17516573 C.Portela, F.Albericio, R.Eritja, L.Castedo, and J.L.Mascareñas (2007).
ds-Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates featuring peptides from the leucine-zipper region of Fos as switchable receptors for the oncoprotein Jun.
  Chembiochem, 8, 1110-1114.  
17510524 C.W.Lee, S.H.Lee, J.W.Lee, J.O.Ban, S.Y.Lee, H.S.Yoo, J.K.Jung, D.C.Moon, K.W.Oh, and J.T.Hong (2007).
2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde inhibits SW620 colon cancer cell growth through AP-1 inactivation.
  J Pharmacol Sci, 104, 19-28.  
17279629 I.S.Chan, A.V.Fedorova, and J.A.Shin (2007).
The GCN4 bZIP targets noncognate gene regulatory sequences: quantitative investigation of binding at full and half sites.
  Biochemistry, 46, 1663-1671.  
17652081 I.Waldmann, S.Wälde, and R.H.Kehlenbach (2007).
Nuclear import of c-Jun is mediated by multiple transport receptors.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 27685-27692.  
17483489 J.M.Mason, U.B.Hagemann, and K.M.Arndt (2007).
Improved stability of the Jun-Fos Activator Protein-1 coiled coil motif: A stopped-flow circular dichroism kinetic analysis.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 23015-23024.  
17636030 M.Ginsberg, E.Czeko, P.Müller, Z.Ren, X.Chen, and J.E.Darnell (2007).
Amino acid residues required for physical and cooperative transcriptional interaction of STAT3 and AP-1 proteins c-Jun and c-Fos.
  Mol Cell Biol, 27, 6300-6308.  
17261584 M.K.Yoon, H.M.Kim, G.Choi, J.O.Lee, and B.S.Choi (2007).
Structural basis for the conformational integrity of the Arabidopsis thaliana HY5 leucine zipper homodimer.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 12989-13002.
PDB code: 2oqq
17875642 M.Kimura, T.Yamamoto, J.Zhang, K.Itoh, M.Kyo, T.Kamiya, H.Aburatani, F.Katsuoka, H.Kurokawa, T.Tanaka, H.Motohashi, and M.Yamamoto (2007).
Molecular basis distinguishing the DNA binding profile of Nrf2-Maf heterodimer from that of Maf homodimer.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 33681-33690.  
17938174 S.Neimanis, W.Albig, D.Doenecke, and J.Kahle (2007).
Sequence elements in both subunits of the DNA fragmentation factor are essential for its nuclear transport.
  J Biol Chem, 282, 35821-35830.  
17920624 W.M.Matousek, B.Ciani, C.A.Fitch, B.Garcia-Moreno, R.A.Kammerer, and A.T.Alexandrescu (2007).
Electrostatic contributions to the stability of the GCN4 leucine zipper structure.
  J Mol Biol, 374, 206-219.  
16784907 A.V.Fedorova, I.S.Chan, and J.A.Shin (2006).
The GCN4 bZIP can bind to noncognate gene regulatory sequences.
  Biochim Biophys Acta, 1764, 1252-1259.  
16880509 B.Miotto, and K.Struhl (2006).
Differential gene regulation by selective association of transcriptional coactivators and bZIP DNA-binding domains.
  Mol Cell Biol, 26, 5969-5982.  
16483937 C.Petosa, P.Morand, F.Baudin, M.Moulin, J.B.Artero, and C.W.Müller (2006).
Structural basis of lytic cycle activation by the Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein.
  Mol Cell, 21, 565-572.
PDB codes: 2c9l 2c9n
16624864 C.Stuhlmann-Laeisz, S.Lang, A.Chalaris, P.Krzysztof, S.Enge, J.Eichler, U.Klingmüller, M.Samuel, M.Ernst, S.Rose-John, and J.Scheller (2006).
Forced dimerization of gp130 leads to constitutive STAT3 activation, cytokine-independent growth, and blockade of differentiation of embryonic stem cells.
  Mol Biol Cell, 17, 2986-2995.  
16940523 L.Heston, A.El-Guindy, J.Countryman, C.Dela Cruz, H.J.Delecluse, and G.Miller (2006).
Amino acids in the basic domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein play distinct roles in DNA binding, activation of early lytic gene expression, and promotion of viral DNA replication.
  J Virol, 80, 9115-9133.  
16717281 P.Hivin, C.Arpin-André, I.Clerc, B.Barbeau, and J.M.Mesnard (2006).
A modified version of a Fos-associated cluster in HBZ affects Jun transcriptional potency.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 34, 2761-2772.  
16633904 T.M.Madsen, T.G.Bolwig, and J.D.Mikkelsen (2006).
Differential regulation of c-Fos and FosB in the rat brain after amygdala kindling.
  Cell Mol Neurobiol, 26, 87.  
16492145 W.M.Kazmierski, T.P.Kenakin, and K.S.Gudmundsson (2006).
Peptide, peptidomimetic and small-molecule drug discovery targeting HIV-1 host-cell attachment and entry through gp120, gp41, CCR5 and CXCR4.
  Chem Biol Drug Des, 67, 13-26.  
15819621 F.A.Blanco, and H.S.Judelson (2005).
A bZIP transcription factor from Phytophthora interacts with a protein kinase and is required for zoospore motility and plant infection.
  Mol Microbiol, 56, 638-648.  
16223730 J.A.Listman, N.Wara-aswapati, J.E.Race, L.W.Blystone, N.Walker-Kopp, Z.Yang, and P.E.Auron (2005).
Conserved ETS domain arginines mediate DNA binding, nuclear localization, and a novel mode of bZIP interaction.
  J Biol Chem, 280, 41421-41428.  
15919888 P.M.Bhende, W.T.Seaman, H.J.Delecluse, and S.C.Kenney (2005).
BZLF1 activation of the methylated form of the BRLF1 immediate-early promoter is regulated by BZLF1 residue 186.
  J Virol, 79, 7338-7348.  
16028219 S.W.Wu, T.P.Ko, C.C.Chou, and A.H.Wang (2005).
Design and characterization of a multimeric DNA binding protein using Sac7d and GCN4 as templates.
  Proteins, 60, 617-628.
PDB code: 1wvl
16299285 Y.Zhang, and J.T.Barbieri (2005).
A leucine-rich motif targets Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoS within mammalian cells.
  Infect Immun, 73, 7938-7945.  
15457434 D.A.Lindhout, J.R.Litowski, P.Mercier, R.S.Hodges, and B.D.Sykes (2004).
NMR solution structure of a highly stable de novo heterodimeric coiled-coil.
  Biopolymers, 75, 367-375.
PDB code: 1u0i
14570911 D.Coss, S.B.Jacobs, C.E.Bender, and P.L.Mellon (2004).
A novel AP-1 site is critical for maximal induction of the follicle-stimulating hormone beta gene by gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 152-162.  
15510218 D.Panne, T.Maniatis, and S.C.Harrison (2004).
Crystal structure of ATF-2/c-Jun and IRF-3 bound to the interferon-beta enhancer.
  EMBO J, 23, 4384-4393.
PDB code: 1t2k
  19461942 J.A.Shin (2004).
Minimalist proteins: Design of new molecular recognition scaffolds.
  Pure Appl Chem, 76, 1579-1590.  
15133230 J.C.Sng, H.Taniura, and Y.Yoneda (2004).
A tale of early response genes.
  Biol Pharm Bull, 27, 606-612.  
15317822 J.Dai, C.Punchihewa, P.Mistry, A.T.Ooi, and D.Yang (2004).
Novel DNA bis-intercalation by MLN944, a potent clinical bisphenazine anticancer drug.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 46096-46103.
PDB code: 1x95
14759261 J.H.Fong, A.E.Keating, and M.Singh (2004).
Predicting specificity in bZIP coiled-coil protein interactions.
  Genome Biol, 5, R11.  
14760737 J.M.Mason, and K.M.Arndt (2004).
Coiled coil domains: stability, specificity, and biological implications.
  Chembiochem, 5, 170-176.  
15084581 M.J.Dubin, P.H.Stokes, E.Y.Sum, R.S.Williams, V.A.Valova, P.J.Robinson, G.J.Lindeman, J.N.Glover, J.E.Visvader, and J.M.Matthews (2004).
Dimerization of CtIP, a BRCA1- and CtBP-interacting protein, is mediated by an N-terminal coiled-coil motif.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26932-26938.  
14993768 N.Numao, H.Fujii, Y.Fukazawa, N.Hanagata, and K.Tanaka (2004).
Hydrophobic scale: a second parameter to elucidating various specific ligand-protein interactions.
  Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 52, 377-379.  
15034932 S.Park, E.R.Hahm, D.K.Lee, and C.H.Yang (2004).
Inhibition of AP-1 transcription activator induces myc-dependent apoptosis in HL60 cells.
  J Cell Biochem, 91, 973-986.  
14698552 S.Z.Luo, Y.M.Li, W.Qiang, Y.F.Zhao, H.Abe, T.Nemoto, X.R.Qin, and H.Nakanishi (2004).
Detection of specific noncovalent interaction of peptide with DNA by MALDI-TOF.
  J Am Soc Mass Spectrom, 15, 28-31.  
15087451 T.N.Lively, T.N.Nguyen, S.K.Galasinski, and J.A.Goodrich (2004).
The basic leucine zipper domain of c-Jun functions in transcriptional activation through interaction with the N terminus of human TATA-binding protein-associated factor-1 (human TAF(II)250).
  J Biol Chem, 279, 26257-26265.  
14640678 A.Singh, and S.E.Hitchcock-DeGregori (2003).
Local destabilization of the tropomyosin coiled coil gives the molecular flexibility required for actin binding.
  Biochemistry, 42, 14114-14121.  
14532268 D.Pérez-Sala, E.Cernuda-Morollón, and F.J.Cañada (2003).
Molecular basis for the direct inhibition of AP-1 DNA binding by 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 51251-51260.  
14754230 E.Allahyarov, H.Löwen, and G.Gompper (2003).
Adsorption of monovalent and multivalent cations and anions on DNA molecules.
  Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 68, 061903.  
12554653 J.B.Mascarenhas, M.A.Rüegg, U.Winzen, W.Halfter, J.Engel, and J.Stetefeld (2003).
Mapping of the laminin-binding site of the N-terminal agrin domain (NtA).
  EMBO J, 22, 529-536.  
12578822 M.Miller, J.D.Shuman, T.Sebastian, Z.Dauter, and P.F.Johnson (2003).
Structural basis for DNA recognition by the basic region leucine zipper transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 15178-15184.
PDB code: 1nwq
14668816 R.Eferl, and E.F.Wagner (2003).
AP-1: a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis.
  Nat Rev Cancer, 3, 859-868.  
12933804 R.Richie-Jannetta, S.H.Francis, and J.D.Corbin (2003).
Dimerization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ibeta is mediated by an extensive amino-terminal leucine zipper motif, and dimerization modulates enzyme function.
  J Biol Chem, 278, 50070-50079.  
12954331 R.W.Broadhurst, D.Nietlispach, M.P.Wheatcroft, P.F.Leadlay, and K.J.Weissman (2003).
The structure of docking domains in modular polyketide synthases.
  Chem Biol, 10, 723-731.
PDB codes: 1pzq 1pzr
14621985 S.A.Wolfe, R.A.Grant, and C.O.Pabo (2003).
Structure of a designed dimeric zinc finger protein bound to DNA.
  Biochemistry, 42, 13401-13409.
PDB code: 1llm
12588992 V.Ramirez-Carrozzi, and T.Kerppola (2003).
Asymmetric recognition of nonconsensus AP-1 sites by Fos-Jun and Jun-Jun influences transcriptional cooperativity with NFAT1.
  Mol Cell Biol, 23, 1737-1749.  
12943540 Y.Yang, L.Fanning, and T.Jack (2003).
The K domain mediates heterodimerization of the Arabidopsis floral organ identity proteins, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA.
  Plant J, 33, 47-59.  
12388679 A.S.El-Guindy, L.Heston, Y.Endo, M.S.Cho, and G.Miller (2002).
Disruption of Epstein-Barr virus latency in the absence of phosphorylation of ZEBRA by protein kinase C.
  J Virol, 76, 11199-11208.  
11983170 C.D.Hu, Y.Chinenov, and T.K.Kerppola (2002).
Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation.
  Mol Cell, 9, 789-798.  
12192032 C.Vinson, M.Myakishev, A.Acharya, A.A.Mir, J.R.Moll, and M.Bonovich (2002).
Classification of human B-ZIP proteins based on dimerization properties.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6321-6335.  
12324400 F.Briki, J.Doucet, and C.Etchebest (2002).
A procedure for refining a coiled coil protein structure using x-ray fiber diffraction and modeling.
  Biophys J, 83, 1774-1783.  
12209468 G.H.Bird, A.R.Lajmi, and J.A.Shin (2002).
Sequence-specific recognition of DNA by hydrophobic, alanine-rich mutants of the basic region/leucine zipper motif investigated by fluorescence anisotropy.
  Biopolymers, 65, 10-20.  
11875518 H.Kusunoki, H.Motohashi, F.Katsuoka, A.Morohashi, M.Yamamoto, and T.Tanaka (2002).
Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of MafG.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 252-256.
PDB code: 1k1v
12176927 J.Fassler, D.Landsman, A.Acharya, J.R.Moll, M.Bonovich, and C.Vinson (2002).
B-ZIP proteins encoded by the Drosophila genome: evaluation of potential dimerization partners.
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Gene-specific transcriptional activity of the insulin cAMP-responsive element is conferred by NF-Y in combination with cAMP response element-binding protein.
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Molecular basis of cooperative DNA bending and oriented heterodimer binding in the NFAT1-Fos-Jun-ARRE2 complex.
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Induction of cell growth by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I is associated with Jun expression in the otic vesicle.
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Yap, a novel family of eight bZIP proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with distinct biological functions.
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Self-assembly of designed antimicrobial peptides in solution and micelles.
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The crystal structure of the designed trimeric coiled coil coil-VaLd: implications for engineering crystals and supramolecular assemblies.
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Mating type in Chlamydomonas is specified by mid, the minus-dominance gene.
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The coiled-coil region of the G protein beta subunit. Mutational analysis of Ggamma and effector interactions.
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Comparison of DNA bending by Fos-Jun and phased A tracts by multifactorial phasing analysis.
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The Maf transcription factors: regulators of differentiation.
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Alpha-helical protein assembly motifs.
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Buried asparagines determine the dimerization specificities of leucine zipper mutants.
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Fos and Jun do not bend the AP-1 recognition site.
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The leucine zipper domain controls the orientation of AP-1 in the NFAT.AP-1.DNA complex.
  Chem Biol, 3, 981-991.  
  8631313 D.Garcia de Viedma, R.Giraldo, G.Rivas, E.Fernández-Tresguerres, and R.Diaz-Orejas (1996).
A leucine zipper motif determines different functions in a DNA replication protein.
  EMBO J, 15, 925-934.  
8654420 D.Krebs, B.Dahmani, M.Monnot, O.Mauffret, F.Troalen, and S.Fermandjian (1996).
Dissection of the basic subdomain of the c-Jun oncoprotein: a structural analysis of two peptide fragments by CD, Fourier-transform infrared and NMR.
  Eur J Biochem, 235, 699-712.  
8662824 F.K.Junius, S.I.O'Donoghue, M.Nilges, A.S.Weiss, and G.F.King (1996).
High resolution NMR solution structure of the leucine zipper domain of the c-Jun homodimer.
  J Biol Chem, 271, 13663-13667.
PDB code: 1jun
8842252 G.F.King (1996).
NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography provide complementary information on the structure and dynamics of leucine zippers.
  Biophys J, 71, 1152-1154.  
8810925 H.Chao, M.E.Houston, S.Grothe, C.M.Kay, M.O'Connor-McCourt, R.T.Irvin, and R.S.Hodges (1996).
Kinetic study on the formation of a de novo designed heterodimeric coiled-coil: use of surface plasmon resonance to monitor the association and dissociation of polypeptide chains.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12175-12185.  
8752217 J.Faix, M.Steinmetz, H.Boves, R.A.Kammerer, F.Lottspeich, U.Mintert, J.Murphy, A.Stock, U.Aebi, and G.Gerisch (1996).
Cortexillins, major determinants of cell shape and size, are actin-bundling proteins with a parallel coiled-coil tail.
  Cell, 86, 631-642.  
  8627667 J.L.Kolman, N.Taylor, L.Gradoville, J.Countryman, and G.Miller (1996).
Comparing transcriptional activation and autostimulation by ZEBRA and ZEBRA/c-Fos chimeras.
  J Virol, 70, 1493-1504.  
8703910 K.H.Heuer, J.P.Mackay, P.Podzebenko, N.P.Bains, A.S.Weiss, G.F.King, and S.B.Easterbrook-Smith (1996).
Development of a sensitive peptide-based immunoassay: application to detection of the Jun and Fos oncoproteins.
  Biochemistry, 35, 9069-9075.  
8946854 L.Gonzalez, D.N.Woolfson, and T.Alber (1996).
Buried polar residues and structural specificity in the GCN4 leucine zipper.
  Nat Struct Biol, 3, 1011-1018.
PDB codes: 1zik 1zil 1zim
  8628254 L.Vandel, N.Montreau, E.Vial, C.M.Pfarr, B.Binetruy, and M.Castellazzi (1996).
Stepwise transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts: c-Jun, JunB, or JunD can cooperate with Ras for focus formation, but a c-Jun-containing heterodimer is required for immortalization.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 1881-1888.  
  8622684 M.A.Dyer, R.Naidoo, R.J.Hayes, C.J.Larson, G.L.Verdine, and M.H.Baron (1996).
A DNA-bending protein interacts with an essential upstream regulatory element of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 829-838.  
8696978 M.Chytil, and G.L.Verdine (1996).
The Rel family of eukaryotic transcription factors.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 6, 91.  
8948639 M.John, R.Leppik, S.J.Busch, M.Granger-Schnarr, and M.Schnarr (1996).
DNA binding of Jun and Fos bZip domains: homodimers and heterodimers induce a DNA conformational change in solution.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 4487-4494.  
  8628277 M.L.Martin, P.M.Lieberman, and T.Curran (1996).
Fos-Jun dimerization promotes interaction of the basic region with TFIIE-34 and TFIIF.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 2110-2118.  
  8599943 M.Suckow, M.Lopata, A.Seydel, B.Kisters-Woike, B.von Wilcken-Bergmann, and B.Müller-Hill (1996).
Mutant bZip-DNA complexes with four quasi-identical protein-DNA interfaces.
  EMBO J, 15, 598-606.  
8816735 P.J.Hagerman (1996).
Do basic region-leucine zipper proteins bend their DNA targets ... does it matter?
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 9993-9996.  
8608117 R.Fairman, H.G.Chao, T.B.Lavoie, J.J.Villafranca, G.R.Matsueda, and J.Novotny (1996).
Design of heterotetrameric coiled coils: evidence for increased stabilization by Glu(-)-Lys(+) ion pair interactions.
  Biochemistry, 35, 2824-2829.  
8962069 R.J.McCormick, T.Badalian, and D.E.Fisher (1996).
The leucine zipper may induce electrophoretic mobility anomalies without DNA bending.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 14434-14439.  
  9213423 R.S.Hodges, and R.S.Hodges (1996).
Boehringer Mannheim award lecture 1995. La conference Boehringer Mannheim 1995. De novo design of alpha-helical proteins: basic research to medical applications.
  Biochem Cell Biol, 74, 133-154.  
8816761 T.K.Kerppola (1996).
Fos and Jun bend the AP-1 site: effects of probe geometry on the detection of protein-induced DNA bending.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 10117-10122.  
8610143 T.Sera, and P.G.Schultz (1996).
In vivo selection of basic region-leucine zipper proteins with altered DNA-binding specificities.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 2920-2925.  
8723999 V.C.Foletta (1996).
Transcription factor AP-1, and the role of Fra-2.
  Immunol Cell Biol, 74, 121-133.  
  8524315 W.Min, S.Ghosh, and P.Lengyel (1996).
The interferon-inducible p202 protein as a modulator of transcription: inhibition of NF-kappa B, c-Fos, and c-Jun activities.
  Mol Cell Biol, 16, 359-368.  
7648395 A.G.Bassuk, and J.M.Leiden (1995).
A direct physical association between ETS and AP-1 transcription factors in normal human T cells.
  Immunity, 3, 223-237.  
7479080 B.Koldin, M.Suckow, A.Seydel, B.von Wilcken-Bergmann, and B.Müller-Hill (1995).
A comparison of the different DNA binding specificities of the bZip proteins C/EBP and GCN4.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 23, 4162-4169.  
7635148 D.Krebs, B.Dahmani, S.el Antri, M.Monnot, O.Convert, O.Mauffret, F.Troalen, and S.Fermandjian (1995).
The basic subdomain of the c-Jun oncoprotein. A joint CD, Fourier-transform infrared and NMR study.
  Eur J Biochem, 231, 370-380.  
  7489722 D.Krylov, M.Olive, and C.Vinson (1995).
Extending dimerization interfaces: the bZIP basic region can form a coiled coil.
  EMBO J, 14, 5329-5337.  
  8520486 D.N.Woolfson, and T.Alber (1995).
Predicting oligomerization states of coiled coils.
  Protein Sci, 4, 1596-1607.  
7559397 D.Porte, P.Oertel-Buchheit, M.Granger-Schnarr, and M.Schnarr (1995).
Fos leucine zipper variants with increased association capacity.
  J Biol Chem, 270, 22721-22730.  
  7623856 K.J.Kotkow, and S.H.Orkin (1995).
Dependence of globin gene expression in mouse erythroleukemia cells on the NF-E2 heterodimer.
  Mol Cell Biol, 15, 4640-4647.  
7583146 L.Chen, M.G.Oakley, J.N.Glover, J.Jain, P.B.Dervan, P.G.Hogan, A.Rao, and G.L.Verdine (1995).
Only one of the two DNA-bound orientations of AP-1 found in solution cooperates with NFATp.
  Curr Biol, 5, 882-889.  
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