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PDBsum entry 1abk

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Endonuclease PDB id
1abk
Jmol
Contents
Protein chain
211 a.a.
Ligands
FS4
Waters ×118
Superseded by: 2abk
PDB id:
1abk
Name: Endonuclease
Structure: Endonuclease iii (acs reg 60184-90-9)
Source: (Escherichia coli)
Authors: C.- F.Kuo,D.E.Mc Ree,J.A.Tainer
Key ref: C.F.Kuo et al. (1992). Atomic structure of the DNA repair [4Fe-4S] enzyme endonuclease III. Science, 258, 434-440. PubMed id: 1411536 DOI: 10.1126/science.1411536
Date:
15-Sep-92     Release date:   15-Jul-93    
PROCHECK
Go to PROCHECK summary
 Headers
 References

Protein chain
No UniProt id for this chain
Struc: 211 a.a.
Key:    Secondary structure  CATH domain

 

 
DOI no: 10.1126/science.1411536 Science 258:434-440 (1992)
PubMed id: 1411536  
 
 
Atomic structure of the DNA repair [4Fe-4S] enzyme endonuclease III.
C.F.Kuo, D.E.McRee, C.L.Fisher, S.F.O'Handley, R.P.Cunningham, J.A.Tainer.
 
  ABSTRACT  
 
The crystal structure of the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III, which recognizes and cleaves DNA at damaged bases, has been solved to 2.0 angstrom enzyme is elongated and bilobal with a deep cleft separating two similarly sized domains: a novel, sequence-continuous, six-helix domain (residues 22 to 132) and a Greek-key, four-helix domain formed by the amino-terminal and three carboxyl-terminal helices (residues 1 to 21 and 133 to 211) together with the cluster. The cluster is bound entirely within the carboxyl-terminal loop with a ligation pattern (Cys-X6-Cys-X2-Cys-X5-Cys) distinct from all other proteins. Sequence conservation and the positive electrostatic potential of conserved regions identify a surface suitable for binding duplex B-DNA across the long axis of the enzyme, matching a 46 angstrom length of cluster appears to involve positioning conserved basic residues for interaction with the DNA phosphate backbone. The crystallographically identified inhibitor binding region, which recognizes the damaged base thymine glycol, is a seven-residue beta-hairpin (residues 113 to 119). Location and side chain orientation at the base of the inhibitor binding site implicate Glu112 in the N-glycosylase mechanism and Lys120 in the beta-elimination mechanism. Overall, the structure reveals an clusters and provides a structural basis for studying recognition of damaged DNA and the N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic-lyase mechanisms.
 

Literature references that cite this PDB file's key reference

  PubMed id Reference
21376015 Y.Murata, I.Furuyama, S.Oda, and H.Mitani (2011).
A novel Rieske-type protein derived from an apoptosis-inducing factor-like (AIFL) transcript with a retained intron 4 induces change in mitochondrial morphology and growth arrest.
  Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 407, 92-97.  
20974931 Y.G.Mok, R.Uzawa, J.Lee, G.M.Weiner, B.F.Eichman, R.L.Fischer, and J.H.Huh (2010).
Domain structure of the DEMETER 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107, 19225-19230.  
19261852 A.J.Jervis, J.C.Crack, G.White, P.J.Artymiuk, M.R.Cheesman, A.J.Thomson, N.E.Le Brun, and J.Green (2009).
The O2 sensitivity of the transcription factor FNR is controlled by Ser24 modulating the kinetics of [4Fe-4S] to [2Fe-2S] conversion.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106, 4659-4664.  
19720997 A.K.Boal, J.C.Genereux, P.A.Sontz, J.A.Gralnick, D.K.Newman, and J.K.Barton (2009).
Redox signaling between DNA repair proteins for efficient lesion detection.
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19021503 F.W.Outten, and E.C.Theil (2009).
Iron-based redox switches in biology.
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19029246 L.M.Griffiths, D.Swartzlander, K.L.Meadows, K.D.Wilkinson, A.H.Corbett, and P.W.Doetsch (2009).
Dynamic compartmentalization of base excision repair proteins in response to nuclear and mitochondrial oxidative stress.
  Mol Cell Biol, 29, 794-807.  
19085017 N.Hamann, E.Bill, J.E.Shokes, R.A.Scott, M.Bennati, and R.Hedderich (2009).
The CCG-domain-containing subunit SdhE of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 14, 457-470.  
18945212 X.Duan, J.Yang, B.Ren, G.Tan, and H.Ding (2009).
Reactivity of nitric oxide with the [4Fe-4S] cluster of dihydroxyacid dehydratase from Escherichia coli.
  Biochem J, 417, 783-789.  
19099189 Y.Wu, A.N.Suhasini, and R.M.Brosh (2009).
Welcome the family of FANCJ-like helicases to the block of genome stability maintenance proteins.
  Cell Mol Life Sci, 66, 1209-1222.  
19519404 Y.Wu, and R.M.Brosh (2009).
FANCJ helicase operates in the Fanconi Anemia DNA repair pathway and the response to replicational stress.
  Curr Mol Med, 9, 470-482.  
18316718 A.A.Gorodetsky, L.E.Dietrich, P.E.Lee, B.Demple, D.K.Newman, and J.K.Barton (2008).
DNA binding shifts the redox potential of the transcription factor SoxR.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 105, 3684-3689.  
18980370 A.A.Gorodetsky, M.C.Buzzeo, and J.K.Barton (2008).
DNA-mediated electrochemistry.
  Bioconjug Chem, 19, 2285-2296.  
18400177 A.R.Lambert, D.Sussman, B.Shen, R.Maunus, J.Nix, J.Samuelson, S.Y.Xu, and B.L.Stoddard (2008).
Structures of the rare-cutting restriction endonuclease NotI reveal a unique metal binding fold involved in DNA binding.
  Structure, 16, 558-569.
PDB codes: 3bvq 3c25
18510925 H.Liu, J.Rudolf, K.A.Johnson, S.A.McMahon, M.Oke, L.Carter, A.M.McRobbie, S.E.Brown, J.H.Naismith, and M.F.White (2008).
Structure of the DNA repair helicase XPD.
  Cell, 133, 801-812.
PDB code: 2vl7
18599627 J.C.Lin, R.R.Singh, and D.L.Cox (2008).
Theoretical study of DNA damage recognition via electron transfer from the [4Fe-4S] complex of MutY.
  Biophys J, 95, 3259-3268.  
17599416 A.K.Boal, E.Yavin, and J.K.Barton (2007).
DNA repair glycosylases with a [4Fe-4S] cluster: a redox cofactor for DNA-mediated charge transport?
  J Inorg Biochem, 101, 1913-1921.  
17116430 T.K.Hazra, A.Das, S.Das, S.Choudhury, Y.W.Kow, and R.Roy (2007).
Oxidative DNA damage repair in mammalian cells: a new perspective.
  DNA Repair (Amst), 6, 470-480.  
16973432 J.Rudolf, V.Makrantoni, W.J.Ingledew, M.J.Stark, and M.F.White (2006).
The DNA repair helicases XPD and FancJ have essential iron-sulfur domains.
  Mol Cell, 23, 801-808.  
16453120 P.M.Rodrigues, A.L.Macedo, B.J.Goodfellow, I.Moura, and J.J.Moura (2006).
Desulfovibrio gigas ferredoxin II: redox structural modulation of the [3Fe-4S] cluster.
  J Biol Inorg Chem, 11, 307-315.  
15837203 A.Karcher, K.Büttner, B.Märtens, R.P.Jansen, and K.P.Hopfner (2005).
X-ray structure of RLI, an essential twin cassette ABC ATPase involved in ribosome biogenesis and HIV capsid assembly.
  Structure, 13, 649-659.
PDB code: 1yqt
15952888 D.C.Johnson, D.R.Dean, A.D.Smith, and M.K.Johnson (2005).
Structure, function, and formation of biological iron-sulfur clusters.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 74, 247-281.  
15811798 O.A.Lukianova, and S.S.David (2005).
A role for iron-sulfur clusters in DNA repair.
  Curr Opin Chem Biol, 9, 145-151.  
15102448 J.C.Fromme, A.Banerjee, and G.L.Verdine (2004).
DNA glycosylase recognition and catalysis.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 14, 43-49.  
15181002 S.Agarwalla, R.M.Stroud, and B.J.Gaffney (2004).
Redox reactions of the iron-sulfur cluster in a ribosomal RNA methyltransferase, RumA: optical and EPR studies.
  J Biol Chem, 279, 34123-34129.  
14517230 B.F.Eichman, E.J.O'Rourke, J.P.Radicella, and T.Ellenberger (2003).
Crystal structures of 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase MagIII and the recognition of alkylated bases.
  EMBO J, 22, 4898-4909.
PDB codes: 1pu6 1pu7 1pu8
14559969 E.M.Boon, A.L.Livingston, N.H.Chmiel, S.S.David, and J.K.Barton (2003).
DNA-mediated charge transport for DNA repair.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 12543-12547.  
12840008 J.C.Fromme, and G.L.Verdine (2003).
Structure of a trapped endonuclease III-DNA covalent intermediate.
  EMBO J, 22, 3461-3471.
PDB codes: 1orn 1orp 1p59
14500818 K.L.Meadows, B.Song, and P.W.Doetsch (2003).
Characterization of AP lyase activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ntg1p and Ntg2p: implications for biological function.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 31, 5560-5567.  
12057763 D.O.Zharkov, and A.P.Grollman (2002).
Combining structural and bioinformatics methods for the analysis of functionally important residues in DNA glycosylases.
  Free Radic Biol Med, 32, 1254-1263.  
12055620 J.C.Fromme, and G.L.Verdine (2002).
Structural insights into lesion recognition and repair by the bacterial 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase MutM.
  Nat Struct Biol, 9, 544-552.
PDB codes: 1l1t 1l1z 1l2b 1l2c 1l2d
12167705 M.T.Ocampo, W.Chaung, D.R.Marenstein, M.K.Chan, A.Altamirano, A.K.Basu, R.J.Boorstein, R.P.Cunningham, and G.W.Teebor (2002).
Targeted deletion of mNth1 reveals a novel DNA repair enzyme activity.
  Mol Cell Biol, 22, 6111-6121.  
12116407 M.Pinak (2001).
Molecular dynamics simulation of thymine glycol-lesioned DNA reveals specific hydration at the lesion.
  J Comput Chem, 22, 1723-1731.  
10813834 A.Gogos, D.Jantz, S.Sentürker, D.Richardson, M.Dizdaroglu, and N.D.Clarke (2000).
Assignment of enzyme substrate specificity by principal component analysis of aligned protein sequences: an experimental test using DNA glycosylase homologs.
  Proteins, 40, 98.  
10954587 A.Parker, Y.Gu, and A.L.Lu (2000).
Purification and characterization of a mammalian homolog of Escherichia coli MutY mismatch repair protein from calf liver mitochondria.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 28, 3206-3215.  
10771522 J.J.Tsai-Wu, H.T.Su, Y.L.Wu, S.M.Hsu, and C.H.Wu (2000).
Nuclear localization of the human mutY homologue hMYH.
  J Cell Biochem, 77, 666-677.  
10985784 K.Asagoshi, H.Odawara, H.Nakano, T.Miyano, H.Terato, Y.Ohyama, S.Seki, and H.Ide (2000).
Comparison of substrate specificities of Escherichia coli endonuclease III and its mouse homologue (mNTH1) using defined oligonucleotide substrates.
  Biochemistry, 39, 11389-11398.  
11106507 O.V.Lavrukhin, and R.S.Lloyd (2000).
Involvement of phylogenetically conserved acidic amino acid residues in catalysis by an oxidative DNA damage enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase.
  Biochemistry, 39, 15266-15271.  
12760025 S.D.Bruner, D.P.Norman, J.C.Fromme, and G.L.Verdine (2000).
Structural and mechanistic studies on repair of 8-oxoguanine in mammalian cells.
  Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 65, 103-111.  
10955998 S.D.Williams, and S.S.David (2000).
A single engineered point mutation in the adenine glycosylase MutY confers bifunctional glycosylase/AP lyase activity.
  Biochemistry, 39, 10098-10109.  
10872450 A.K.McCullough, M.L.Dodson, and R.S.Lloyd (1999).
Initiation of base excision repair: glycosylase mechanisms and structures.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 68, 255-285.  
10024877 A.Klungland, M.Höss, D.Gunz, A.Constantinou, S.G.Clarkson, P.W.Doetsch, P.H.Bolton, R.D.Wood, and T.Lindahl (1999).
Base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage activated by XPG protein.
  Mol Cell, 3, 33-42.  
10467137 A.Shekhtman, L.McNaughton, R.P.Cunningham, and S.M.Baxter (1999).
Identification of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus endonuclease III DNA interaction surface using heteronuclear NMR methods.
  Structure, 7, 919-930.  
10410797 C.D.Mol, S.S.Parikh, C.D.Putnam, T.P.Lo, and J.A.Tainer (1999).
DNA repair mechanisms for the recognition and removal of damaged DNA bases.
  Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct, 28, 101-128.  
10350454 D.M.Noll, A.Gogos, J.A.Granek, and N.D.Clarke (1999).
The C-terminal domain of the adenine-DNA glycosylase MutY confers specificity for 8-oxoguanine.adenine mispairs and may have evolved from MutT, an 8-oxo-dGTPase.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6374-6379.  
  10207101 I.Alseth, L.Eide, M.Pirovano, T.Rognes, E.Seeberg, and M.Bjørås (1999).
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli, Ntg1 and Ntg2, are both required for efficient repair of spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in yeast.
  Mol Cell Biol, 19, 3779-3787.  
10353811 M.P.Golinelli, N.H.Chmiel, and S.S.David (1999).
Site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine ligands to the [4Fe-4S] cluster of Escherichia coli MutY.
  Biochemistry, 38, 6997-7007.  
  10548040 M.Smalla, P.Schmieder, M.Kelly, A.Ter Laak, G.Krause, L.Ball, M.Wahl, P.Bork, and H.Oschkinat (1999).
Solution structure of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 SAM domain and identification of two distinct homotypic interaction sites.
  Protein Sci, 8, 1954-1961.
PDB code: 1sgg
9730810 D.O.Zharkov, and A.P.Grollman (1998).
MutY DNA glycosylase: base release and intermediate complex formation.
  Biochemistry, 37, 12384-12394.  
9657672 J.A.Feng, C.J.Crasto, and Y.Matsumoto (1998).
Deoxyribose phosphate excision by the N-terminal domain of the polymerase beta: the mechanism revisited.
  Biochemistry, 37, 9605-9611.  
9601036 J.Jurado, M.Saparbaev, T.J.Matray, M.M.Greenberg, and J.Laval (1998).
The ring fragmentation product of thymidine C5-hydrate when present in DNA is repaired by the Escherichia coli Fpg and Nth proteins.
  Biochemistry, 37, 7757-7763.  
9783745 M.O'Gara, J.R.Horton, R.J.Roberts, and X.Cheng (1998).
Structures of HhaI methyltransferase complexed with substrates containing mismatches at the target base.
  Nat Struct Biol, 5, 872-877.
PDB codes: 7mht 8mht 9mht
9759487 R.J.Roberts, and X.Cheng (1998).
Base flipping.
  Annu Rev Biochem, 67, 181-198.  
9572864 S.L.Porello, M.J.Cannon, and S.S.David (1998).
A substrate recognition role for the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster of the DNA repair glycosylase MutY.
  Biochemistry, 37, 6465-6475.  
9235002 A.L.Lomize, and H.I.Mosberg (1997).
Thermodynamic model of secondary structure for alpha-helical peptides and proteins.
  Biopolymers, 42, 239-269.  
9315848 B.R.Crane, L.M.Siegel, and E.D.Getzoff (1997).
Structures of the siroheme- and Fe4S4-containing active center of sulfite reductase in different states of oxidation: heme activation via reduction-gated exogenous ligand exchange.
  Biochemistry, 36, 12101-12119.
PDB codes: 2aop 3aop 4aop 5aop
9283290 C.Liang, and K.Mislow (1997).
Topological chirality of iron-sulfur proteins.
  Biopolymers, 42, 411-414.  
9032058 D.G.Vassylyev, and K.Morikawa (1997).
DNA-repair enzymes.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 7, 103-109.  
9090535 E.Beutler, B.Westwood, R.van Zwieten, and D.Roos (1997).
G-->T transition at cDNA nt 110 (K37Q) in the PKLR (pyruvate kinase) gene is the molecular basis of a case of hereditary increase of red blood cell ATP.
  Hum Mutat, 9, 282-285.  
9125491 G.P.Mullen, and S.H.Wilson (1997).
DNA polymerase beta in abasic site repair: a structurally conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif in lesion detection by base excision repair enzymes.
  Biochemistry, 36, 4713-4717.  
9066307 J.Jen, D.L.Mitchell, R.P.Cunningham, C.A.Smith, J.S.Taylor, and J.E.Cleaver (1997).
Ultraviolet irradiation produces novel endonuclease III-sensitive cytosine photoproducts at dipyrimidine sites.
  Photochem Photobiol, 65, 323-329.  
9020769 L.Augeri, Y.M.Lee, A.B.Barton, and P.W.Doetsch (1997).
Purification, characterization, gene cloning, and expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae redoxyendonuclease, a homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease III.
  Biochemistry, 36, 721-729.  
9125531 L.E.Rabow, and Y.W.Kow (1997).
Mechanism of action of base release by Escherichia coli Fpg protein: role of lysine 155 in catalysis.
  Biochemistry, 36, 5084-5096.  
9321410 M.Bjorâs, L.Luna, B.Johnsen, E.Hoff, T.Haug, T.Rognes, and E.Seeberg (1997).
Opposite base-dependent reactions of a human base excision repair enzyme on DNA containing 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and abasic sites.
  EMBO J, 16, 6314-6322.  
8990169 R.Aspinwall, D.G.Rothwell, T.Roldan-Arjona, C.Anselmino, C.J.Ward, J.P.Cheadle, J.R.Sampson, T.Lindahl, P.C.Harris, and I.D.Hickson (1997).
Cloning and characterization of a functional human homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease III.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 94, 109-114.  
9287157 R.C.Manuel, and R.S.Lloyd (1997).
Cloning, overexpression, and biochemical characterization of the catalytic domain of MutY.
  Biochemistry, 36, 11140-11152.  
9197244 R.Lu, H.M.Nash, and G.L.Verdine (1997).
A mammalian DNA repair enzyme that excises oxidatively damaged guanines maps to a locus frequently lost in lung cancer.
  Curr Biol, 7, 397-407.  
9354758 R.S.Lloyd, and X.Cheng (1997).
Mechanistic link between DNA methyltransferases and DNA repair enzymes by base flipping.
  Biopolymers, 44, 139-151.  
9003192 W.F.Lima, and S.T.Crooke (1997).
Binding affinity and specificity of Escherichia coli RNase H1: impact on the kinetics of catalysis of antisense oligonucleotide-RNA hybrids.
  Biochemistry, 36, 390-398.  
8988002 A.Gogos, J.Cillo, N.D.Clarke, and A.L.Lu (1996).
Specific recognition of A/G and A/7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) mismatches by Escherichia coli MutY: removal of the C-terminal domain preferentially affects A/8-oxoG recognition.
  Biochemistry, 35, 16665-16671.  
8692686 A.J.Doherty, L.C.Serpell, and C.P.Ponting (1996).
The helix-hairpin-helix DNA-binding motif: a structural basis for non-sequence-specific recognition of DNA.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 2488-2497.  
8899719 C.W.Sensen, H.P.Klenk, R.K.Singh, G.Allard, C.C.Chan, Q.Y.Liu, S.L.Penny, F.Young, M.E.Schenk, T.Gaasterland, W.F.Doolittle, M.A.Ragan, and R.L.Charlebois (1996).
Organizational characteristics and information content of an archaeal genome: 156 kb of sequence from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2.
  Mol Microbiol, 22, 175-191.  
8805338 H.M.Nash, S.D.Bruner, O.D.Schärer, T.Kawate, T.A.Addona, E.Spooner, W.S.Lane, and G.L.Verdine (1996).
Cloning of a yeast 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase reveals the existence of a base-excision DNA-repair protein superfamily.
  Curr Biol, 6, 968-980.  
8841118 H.Pelletier, M.R.Sawaya, W.Wolfle, S.H.Wilson, and J.Kraut (1996).
Crystal structures of human DNA polymerase beta complexed with DNA: implications for catalytic mechanism, processivity, and fidelity.
  Biochemistry, 35, 12742-12761.
PDB codes: 9icm 9icw 9icx 9icy
  8895589 J.P.Horst, and H.J.Fritz (1996).
Counteracting the mutagenic effect of hydrolytic deamination of DNA 5-methylcytosine residues at high temperature: DNA mismatch N-glycosylase Mig.Mth of the thermophilic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum THF.
  EMBO J, 15, 5459-5469.  
8855249 L.Eide, M.Bjørås, M.Pirovano, I.Alseth, K.G.Berdal, and E.Seeberg (1996).
Base excision of oxidative purine and pyrimidine DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a DNA glycosylase with sequence similarity to endonuclease III from Escherichia coli.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93, 10735-10740.  
8555240 M.Bhagwat, and J.A.Gerlt (1996).
3'- and 5'-strand cleavage reactions catalyzed by the Fpg protein from Escherichia coli occur via successive beta- and delta-elimination mechanisms, respectively.
  Biochemistry, 35, 659-665.  
8855952 N.V.Bulychev, C.V.Varaprasad, G.Dormán, J.H.Miller, M.Eisenberg, A.P.Grollman, and F.Johnson (1996).
Substrate specificity of Escherichia coli MutY protein.
  Biochemistry, 35, 13147-13156.  
  8819157 R.M.Adams, S.Das, and T.F.Smith (1996).
Multiple domain protein diagnostic patterns.
  Protein Sci, 5, 1240-1249.  
8811082 T.Roldán-Arjona, C.Anselmino, and T.Lindahl (1996).
Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of Escherichia coli endonuclease III.
  Nucleic Acids Res, 24, 3307-3312.  
7479727 B.Shen, D.R.Jollie, T.C.Diller, C.D.Stout, P.J.Stephens, and B.K.Burgess (1995).
Site-directed mutagenesis of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin I: cysteine ligation of the [4Fe-4S] cluster with protein rearrangement is preferred over serine ligation.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 10064-10068.
PDB code: 1frx
7697717 C.D.Mol, A.S.Arvai, G.Slupphaug, B.Kavli, I.Alseth, H.E.Krokan, and J.A.Tainer (1995).
Crystal structure and mutational analysis of human uracil-DNA glycosylase: structural basis for specificity and catalysis.
  Cell, 80, 869-878.  
8521494 D.G.Vassylyev, T.Kashiwagi, Y.Mikami, M.Ariyoshi, S.Iwai, E.Ohtsuka, and K.Morikawa (1995).
Atomic model of a pyrimidine dimer excision repair enzyme complexed with a DNA substrate: structural basis for damaged DNA recognition.
  Cell, 83, 773-782.
PDB code: 1vas
8533150 E.Seeberg, L.Eide, and M.Bjørås (1995).
The base excision repair pathway.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 391-397.  
7773744 J.A.Tainer, M.M.Thayer, and R.P.Cunningham (1995).
DNA repair proteins.
  Curr Opin Struct Biol, 5, 20-26.  
7697713 J.E.Cleaver, and S.K.Layher (1995).
If the shoe fits": clues on structural recognition of DNA damage.
  Cell, 80, 825-827.  
8521862 J.L.Breton, J.L.Duff, J.N.Butt, F.A.Armstrong, S.J.George, Y.Pétillot, E.Forest, G.Schäfer, and A.J.Thomson (1995).
Identification of the iron-sulfur clusters in a ferredoxin from the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Evidence for a reduced [3Fe-4S] cluster with pH-dependent electronic properties.
  Eur J Biochem, 233, 937-946.  
  7489724 K.Iwai, R.D.Klausner, and T.A.Rouault (1995).
Requirements for iron-regulated degradation of the RNA binding protein, iron regulatory protein 2.
  EMBO J, 14, 5350-5357.  
8533156 L.H.Pearl, and R.Savva (1995).
DNA repair in three dimensions.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 20, 421-426.  
  7664751 M.M.Thayer, H.Ahern, D.Xing, R.P.Cunningham, and J.A.Tainer (1995).
Novel DNA binding motifs in the DNA repair enzyme endonuclease III crystal structure.
  EMBO J, 14, 4108-4120.
PDB code: 2abk
7708673 N.Khoroshilova, H.Beinert, and P.J.Kiley (1995).
Association of a polynuclear iron-sulfur center with a mutant FNR protein enhances DNA binding.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92, 2499-2503.  
8710829 Y.Matsuo, and K.Nishikawa (1995).
Assessment of a protein fold recognition method that takes into account four physicochemical properties: side-chain packing, solvation, hydrogen-bonding, and local conformation.
  Proteins, 23, 370-375.  
  8306957 E.Hidalgo, and B.Demple (1994).
An iron-sulfur center essential for transcriptional activation by the redox-sensing SoxR protein.
  EMBO J, 13, 138-146.  
8092709 J.Miller, K.Miaskiewicz, and R.Osman (1994).
Structure-function studies of DNA damage using ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulation.
  Ann N Y Acad Sci, 726, 71-91.  
  8156986 M.H.Moore, J.M.Gulbis, E.J.Dodson, B.Demple, and P.C.Moody (1994).
Crystal structure of a suicidal DNA repair protein: the Ada O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase from E. coli.
  EMBO J, 13, 1495-1501.
PDB code: 1sfe
15335790 A.J.Thomson (1993).
Iron-sulphur proteins: crosslinked by a cluster.
  Curr Biol, 3, 173-174.  
8352959 D.E.Barnes, T.Lindahl, and B.Sedgwick (1993).
DNA repair.
  Curr Opin Cell Biol, 5, 424-433.  
7763979 J.A.Tainer, and R.P.Cunningham (1993).
Molecular recognition in DNA-binding proteins and enzymes.
  Curr Opin Biotechnol, 4, 474-483.  
  8244942 O.Le, B.Shen, S.E.Iismaa, and B.K.Burgess (1993).
Azotobacter vinelandii mutS: nucleotide sequence and mutant analysis.
  J Bacteriol, 175, 7707-7710.  
8328011 R.C.Prince, and M.J.Grossman (1993).
Novel iron-sulfur clusters.
  Trends Biochem Sci, 18, 153-154.  
8516291 T.E.Nash, and M.R.Mowatt (1993).
Variant-specific surface proteins of Giardia lamblia are zinc-binding proteins.
  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 90, 5489-5493.  
The most recent references are shown first. Citation data come partly from CiteXplore and partly from an automated harvesting procedure. Note that this is likely to be only a partial list as not all journals are covered by either method. However, we are continually building up the citation data so more and more references will be included with time. Where a reference describes a PDB structure, the PDB codes are shown on the right.