- Biomacromolecules are large biological polymers, such as nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates, that are made up of monomers. Some of them interact with smaller molecules called ligands.
- DNA and RNA are composed of nucleotides and form specific three-dimensional structures. DNA generally forms a double helix and can be bound by a number of macromolecules including proteins (e.g. helix-turn-helix motifs).
- RNA is mostly a single stranded polymer that can fold into a vast number of complex three- dimensional shapes. mRNA carries genetic information that directs protein synthesis. Non-coding RNAs, for example tRNA and rRNA, are functional RNAs that are not translated into proteins.
- Proteins are linear chains composed of amino acids. To be able to perform their biological functions such as chemical catalysis, structural roles, transport and intracellular signalling, proteins fold into specific spatial conformations.
- There are four levels of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
- The tertiary and quaternary structural data submitted to PDB is determined mainly by X-ray crystallography, but also by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron microscopy methods.
- Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) is a part of the Wordwide Protein Data bank (wwPDB). PDBe is a European resource for the collection, organisation and dissemination of data about nucleic acid and protein structure as well as molecules that may interact with them.
- PDBe also develops and maintains several tools to explore and analysis biomacromolecular data.