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Imaging

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Imaging date:   e.g. 09-OCT-1995
Microscope:    
Acceleration voltage (kV):   e.g. 300 (in kV)
Illumination mode:    
Imaging mode:    
Electron beam tilt parameters (mrad): e.g. -2 mradians
Spherical aberration coefficient (mm): e.g. 1.4 (in millimetres)
Astigmatism correction protocol: e.g. Objective lens astigmatism was corrected at 100,000 times magnification
Minimum defocus (nm): e.g. 975 (in nanometres). Please provide defocus values in nanometres, not micrometres.
Maximum defocus (nm): e.g. 1000 (in nanometres). Please provide defocus values in nanometres, not micrometres.
Minimum tilt angle (degrees): e.g. -30 (in degrees)
Maximum tilt angle (degrees): e.g. 45 (in degrees)
Nominal magnification: e.g. 60000
Calibrated magnification: e.g. 60050
Electron source:    
Electron dose [e/(Å^2)]: e.g. 9 (electrons/square angstrom)
Energy filter name: e.g. FEI
Energy filter range (eV): e.g. 0-25 (in eV)
Holder model:    
Holder details: e.g. Helium cooled
Minimum specimen temperature (K): e.g. 80 (in kelvin)
Maximum specimen temperature (K): e.g. 105 (in kelvin)
Average specimen temperature (K): e.g. 100 (in kelvin)
Camera length (mm): e.g. 800 (in millimetres)
Image detector:    
Details: e.g. Weak beam illumination

Imaging

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Imaging date:   e.g. 09-OCT-1995
Microscope:    
Acceleration voltage (kV):   e.g. 300 (in kV)
Illumination mode:    
Imaging mode:    
Electron beam tilt parameters (mrad): e.g. -2 mradians
Spherical aberration coefficient (mm): e.g. 1.4 (in millimetres)
Astigmatism correction protocol: e.g. Objective lens astigmatism was corrected at 100,000 times magnification
Minimum defocus (nm): e.g. 975 (in nanometres). Please provide defocus values in nanometres, not micrometres.
Maximum defocus (nm): e.g. 1000 (in nanometres). Please provide defocus values in nanometres, not micrometres.
Minimum tilt angle (degrees): e.g. -30 (in degrees)
Maximum tilt angle (degrees): e.g. 45 (in degrees)
Nominal magnification: e.g. 60000
Calibrated magnification: e.g. 60050
Electron source:    
Electron dose [e/(Å^2)]: e.g. 9 (electrons/square angstrom)
Energy filter name: e.g. FEI
Energy filter range (eV): e.g. 0-25 (in eV)
Holder model:    
Holder details: e.g. Helium cooled
Minimum specimen temperature (K): e.g. 80 (in kelvin)
Maximum specimen temperature (K): e.g. 105 (in kelvin)
Average specimen temperature (K): e.g. 100 (in kelvin)
Camera length (mm): e.g. 800 (in millimetres)
Image detector:    
Details: e.g. Weak beam illumination

Imaging date

Date (dd-MMM-yyyy) of imaging experiment. If the imaging session time period was longer than one day, please provide the imaging session starting date. If images from multiple imaging sessions were used in the reconstruction, please indicate by duplicating this section.

Example: 19-OCT-1995
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Microscope

The make and model of electron microscope.

Example: HITACHI HF2000
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Alternative microscope

If the microscope used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

Example: JEOL 5000EX

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Acceleration voltage

The accelerating voltage (in kV) used for imaging.

Range: 0.5 to 5000.0
Example: 300
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Illumination mode

The mode of illumination.

Example: FLOOD BEAM
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Alternative illumination mode

If the illumination mode used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

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Imaging mode

Imaging mode.

Example: DARK FIELD
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Alternative imaging mode

If the imaging mode used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

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Electron beam tilt parameters

Electron beam double-deflection coils may be used to shift and tilt the beam and are used for aligning the objective lens and correct beam movement caused by the condenser stigmater.
Beam tilt is visible in difraction as a diffraction shift so beam shift are set in diffraction mode whilst beam tilt pivot points are set in image mode where a beam shift will be visible.
The Coma Free centre is the most accurate positioning of the beam tilt for optimum HRTEM imaging. If it is not corrected, the phase shift induced by the objective lens for diffracted beams at h and at -h will not be the same, which significantly effects high-resolution images.

Example: Beam tilt was from 0 to -2 milliradians
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Spherical aberration coefficient

The spherical aberration coefficient (Cs) in millimetres,of the objective lens.

Range: 0.0 to 10.0 (in millimetres)
Example: 1.4
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Astigmatism correction methods

Astigmatism in the electron microscope is caused by small imperfections in the rotational symmetry of the electron lens. This causes the lens to focus more strongly than in the perpendicular direction, causing an asymmetry callled astigmatism. Thsi image defect is corrected by the stigmator.
Electron microscopes have three sets of stigmators: the condenser stigmator to make the focussed beam circular, the objective stigmator to correct astigmatism in the high-magnification image and for low angle diffractio patterns, and the diffraction stigmator to correct astigmatism in the diffraction pattern. The stigmator consists of a quadrupole whose four elements are arranged at 90 degrees around the beam. Each stigmator consists of 2 elements, one mounted above the other and rotateable by 45 degrees with respect to each other. This combination of 2 elements allows correction of the astigmatism in any direction.

Example: Objective astigmatism was corrected using a quadrupole stigmator at 50,000 times magnification
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Minimimum defocus

The minimum defocus value of the objective lens (in nanometres) used to record images. Negative values represent overfocus.

Range: -10000.0 to 10000.0 (in nanometres)
Example: 975
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Maximum defocus

The maximum defocus value of the objective lens (in nanometres) used to record images. Negative values represent overfocus.

Range: -20000.0 to 20000.0 (in nanometres)
Example: 2450
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Minimum tilt angle

The minimum angle (in degrees) to which the specimen was tilted to obtain recorded images.

Range: -90.0 to 90.0 (in degrees)
Example: -30
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Maximum tilt angle

The maximum angle (in degrees) to which the specimen was tilted to obtain recorded images.

Range: -90.0 to 90.0 (in degrees)
Example: 30
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Nominal microscope magnification

The magnification indicated by the microscope readout.

Range: 100 to 1000000
Example: 60000
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Calibrated magnification

The magnification value obtained for a known standard just prior to, during or just after the imaging experiment.

Range: 100.0 to 1000000.0
Example: 60050
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Electron source

The source of electrons is the electron 'gun'. The electron emitter material is usually a lanthanide (lanthanum hexaboride, LaB6) or tungsten. The most common thermionic emitter is a tungsten 'hairpin' filament. Tungsten, drawn to a fine point, is also used in Field Emission electron guns (FEGs).

Example: TUNGSTEN HAIRPIN
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Alternative electron source

If the electron source used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

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Electron dose

An estimate of the total electron dose received by the sample (electrons per square angstrom).

Range: 0 to 1000 (electrons per square angstrom)
Example: 20
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Energy filter name

The make and model of the electron energy filter and/or spectrometer.The microscope manufacturers can incorporate electron energy filter spectrometers into specific microscope models. Examples: The LEO 912AB is configured for the demands of advanced bio-med applications. It delivers ultimate image quality for all specimen preparations and offers unlimited flexibility for consistent and new imaging and analysis methods as electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The JEM-3100FEF features a new filter system (Omega filter) for electron energy loss spectrometry, achieving high contrast atomic imaging and facilitating elemental analysis.

Example: LEO 912AB
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Energy filter range

The energy filter range in electron volts (eV). Inelastically scattered electrons result from interactions of the beam with specimen electrons within the atomic shell. Energy is transferred to the shell electron and then released. This energy loss is specific for the target electron within each electron shell (K,L,M,N,O), and is also characteristic for each element. It ranges from 10-100 electron volts (eV). An atlas is available to match the element detected with the characteristic spectrum of the distribution of inelastically scattered electrons. The atlas also permits one to set the correct filter position to capture the ineleastically scattered electrons of choice. A small change in direction also occurs, typically from 0-1 mradians, and the population of inelastically scattered electrons are 'polychromatic'. The small change in direction means that the majority of inelastically-scattered electrons are allowed through the objective aperture, and so contribute to the image.

Range: 0-1000 (eV)
Example: 0-50.
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Specimen holder model

The make and model of specimen holder used during imaging.

Example: GATAN HELIUM
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Alternative specimen holder model

If the specimen holder model used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

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Specimen holder details

Additional details about the specimen holder used during imaging.

Example: This holder operates in the temperature range from -175 C to ambient, and gives a resolution of at least 0.34 nanometres.
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Minimum specimen temperature

The specimen temperature minimum (kelvin scale) for the duration of imaging.

Range: 2.0 to 310.0 (in kelvin)
Example: 100
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Maximum specimen temperature

The specimen temperature maximum (kelvin scale) for the duration of imaging.

Range: 2.0 to 310.0 (in kelvin)
Example: 100
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Average specimen temperature

The mean specimen stage temperature (kelvin scale) during imaging in the microscope.

Range: 2.0 to 310.0 (in kelvin)
Example: 100
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Camera length

The camera length (in millimetres). The camera length is the product of the objective focal length and the combined magnification of the intermediate and projector lenses when the microscope is operated in the diffraction mode.

Range: 0.0 to 30000.0 (in millimetres)
Example: 975
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Image detector

The electron detector used for recording images directly from the electron microscope.Usually film or CCD camera.

Example: GATAN 673 (CCD camera)
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Alternative image detector

If the image detector used is not found in the drop-down list, report it in this text area.

Example: TVIPS TemCam-Futura

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Additional imaging Details

Any additional imaging details.

Example: A Gatan 651 blade-type anticontaminator was fitted, with a minimum achievable temperature of -185 C.
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