A muscle whose action is to depress the lower jaw. [ https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/232 https://doi.org/10.1006/bijl.2000.0436 ]

This is just here as a test because I lose it

Term information

database cross reference
  • XAO:0004127
  • AAO:0010655
  • TAO:0000612
axiom lost from external ontology

relationship loss: subclass hyobranchial muscles (AAO:0000224)[AAO]

external comment

Source: Winterbottom, R. 1973. A Descriptive Synonymy of the Striated Muscles of the Teleostei. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Vol. 125 (1973), pp. 225-317.[TAO]

external definition

Muscle located on ventral side of the head, linking the ventral hyoid arch to the dentary. Innervated by ramus mandibularis V and ramus hyoides VII.[TAO]

Muscle that pulls the hyoid apparatus forward and depresses the lower jaw.[AAO]

has narrow synonym

protractor hyoidei

protractor hyoideus


depressor gnathalis




geniohyoideus muscle



taxon notes

In amphibians, 'Muscle that pulls the hyoid apparatus forward and depresses the lower jaw.' [AAO:0010655]. 'The protractor hyoideus muscle in teleosts is commonly, albeit mistakenly, referred to as the geniohyoideus muscle, which is involved in the coracomandibularis coupling. According to Edgeworth (1935) and Winterbottom (1974), the protractor hyoideus is composed of a fusion of the intermandibularis posterior and the interhyoideus muscles which resulted in the protractor hyoideus which spans the hyoid and mandible. The intermandibularis spans the mandible while the closely apposed interhyoideus spans the hyoid in other fishes. Furthermore, they concluded that any muscle that is homologous to the geniohyoideus (coracomandibularis coupling) in other lower vertebrates has been lost in teleosts, as well as gars. However, the protractor hyoideus muscle is functionally analogous to the coracomandibularis coupling of other vertebrates and so we use it in our discussion to show the phylogenetically broad roles of these couplings in jaw mechanics.'

Term relations

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