CTO: Core Ontology of Clinical Trials

The core Ontology of Clinical Trials (CTO) will serve as a structured resource integrating basic terms and concepts in the context of clinical trials. Thereby covering clinicaltrails.gov. CoreCTO will serve as a basic ontology to generate extended versions for specific applications such as annotation of variables in study documents from clinical trials.

Ontology information

Ontology ID: cto
Version: Version Release: 1.0.0
Number of terms: 298
Last loaded: Fri Jun 18 03:43:42 BST 2021




editor note

BFO 2 Reference: BFO's treatment of continuants and occurrents - as also its treatment of regions, rests on a dichotomy between space and time, and on the view that there are two perspectives on reality - earlier called the 'SNAP' and 'SPAN' perspectives, both of which are essential to the non-reductionist representation of reality as we understand it from the best available science.

BFO 2 Reference: BFO does not claim to provide complete coverage of entities of all types. It seeks only to provide coverage of those entities studied by empirical science together with those entities which affect or are involved in human activities such as data processing and planning - coverage that is sufficiently broad to provide assistance to those engaged in building domain ontologies for purposes of data annotation.

BFO 2 Reference: For both terms and relational expressions in BFO, we distinguish between primitive and defined. 'Entity' is an example of a primitive term. Primitive terms in a highest-level ontology such as BFO are terms that are so basic to our understanding of reality that there is no way of defining them in a non-circular fashion. For these, therefore, we can provide only elucidations, supplemented by examples and by axioms.


Johannes Darms (Fraunhofer SCAI)

Stephan Gebel (Fraunhofer SCAI)

Alpha Tom Kodamullil (Fraunhofer SCAI)

Sumit Madan (Fraunhofer SCAI)


Astghik Sargsyan (Fraunhofer SCAI)

Leonard Jacuzzo

Bill Duncan

Albert Goldfain

Barry Smith

Stefan Schulz

Werner Ceusters

Asiyah Yu Lin (CDRH, Food and Drug Administration)

Selja Seppälä

Leon Li (NIH)

Thomas Bittner

Randall Dipert

Yongqun "Oliver" He

Oliver He (University of Michigan)

Melanie Courtot

James A. Overton

Janna Hastings

Ron Rudnicki

Fabian Neuhaus

Chris Mungall

Mathias Brochhausen

David Osumi-Sutherland

Jonathan Bona

Bjoern Peters

Pierre Grenon

Shounak Baksi (Causality Biomodels)

Jie Zheng

Larry Hunter

Geena Mariya Jose (Causality Biomodels)

Alan Ruttenberg

Holger Stenzhorn

Ludger Jansen

Mauricio Almeida

Mark Ressler





Please see the project site https://github.com/BFO-ontology/BFO, the bfo2 owl discussion group http://groups.google.com/group/bfo-owl-devel, the bfo2 discussion group http://groups.google.com/group/bfo-devel, the tracking google doc http://goo.gl/IlrEE, and the current version of the bfo2 reference http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/bfo/dev/bfo2-reference.docx. This ontology is generated from a specification at https://github.com/BFO-ontology/BFO/tree/master/src/ontology/owl-group/specification/ and with the code that generates the OWL version in https://github.com/BFO-ontology/BFO/tree/master/src/tools/. A very early version of BFO version 2 in CLIF is at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/bfo/dev/bfo.clif.

The BSD license on the BFO project site refers to code used to build BFO.

This BFO 2.0 version represents a major update to BFO and is not strictly backwards compatible with BFO 1.1. The previous OWL version of BFO, version 1.1.1 will remain available at http://ifomis.org/bfo/1.1 and will no longer be updated. The BFO 2.0 OWL is a classes-only specification. The incorporation of core relations has been held over for a later version.


CTO: Core Ontology of Clinical Trials