JSON

liver

^ http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0002107


An exocrine gland which secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat, synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood, synthesizes vitamin A, detoxifies poisonous substances, stores glycogen, and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes[GO]. [ http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BTO_0000759 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver ]

Term info

database cross reference
Subsets

uberon_slim, efo_slim, pheno_slim, vertebrate_core, organ_slim, major_organ

axiom lost from external ontology

relationship type change: differentiates_from endoderm (AAO:0000139) CHANGED TO: develops_from endoderm (UBERON:0000925)[AAO]

depicted by

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/Leber_Schaf.jpg

external definition

Organ which secretes bile and participates in formation of certain blood proteins.[AAO]

external ontology notes

Only ZFA considers this part_of immune system - we weaken this to an overlaps relation, as in general it's only a subset of cells that have clear immune function.

function notes

secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat, synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood, synthesizes vitamin A, detoxifies poisonous substances, stores glycogen, and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes[GO].

has related synonym

jecur, iecur

homology notes

All vertebrates possess a liver (reference 1); Later in craniate evolution, an anterior gill arch was transformed into jaws, and many new types of feeding subsequently evolved.(...) A liver evolved that, among its many functions, stores considerable energy as glycogen or lipid (reference 2).[well established][VHOG]

id

UBERON:0002107

taxon notes

The liver is found in all vertebrates, and is typically the largest visceral organ. Its form varies considerably in different species, and is largely determined by the shape and arrangement of the surrounding organs. Nonetheless, in most species it is divided into right and left lobes; exceptions to this general rule include snakes, where the shape of the body necessitates a simple cigar-like form. The internal structure of the liver is broadly similar in all vertebrates., An organ sometimes referred to as a liver is found associated with the digestive tract of the primitive chordate Amphioxus. However, this is an enzyme secreting gland, not a metabolic organ, and it is unclear how truly homologous it is to the vertebrate liver. The zebrafish liver differs from the mammalian liver in that the hepatocytes are not clearly organized in cords or lobules and the typical portal triads are not apparent. In addition, the zebrafish liver does not have Kuppfer cells. Furthermore, a clear distinction can be made between the male and female liver in the adult zebrafish. The female hepatocytes are very basophilic (Figure 15c) as a result of the production of vitellogenin (Van der Ven et al. 2003).