Pathways & interactions
CELF1/2, RNA recognition motif 2 (IPR034198)
Short name: CELF1/2_RRM2
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Nucleotide-binding alpha-beta plait domain superfamily (IPR012677)
- RNA-binding domain superfamily (IPR035979)
- RNA recognition motif domain (IPR000504)
- CELF1/2, RNA recognition motif 2 (IPR034198)
The human CELF family has six members, which can be divided into two subfamilies based on their phylogeny: CELF1-2 and CELF3-6. This entry represents the RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2) of CELF-1 and CELF-2 protein.
CELF-1 and CELF-2 belong to the CELF (CUGBP and ETR-3 Like Factor)/Bruno-like protein family, whose members play important roles in the regulation of alternative splicing and translation. CELF-1 and CELF-2 share sequence similarity to the Drosophila Bruno protein and binds to the Bruno response elements (cis-acting sequences in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) ofoskar mRNA) [PMID: 10893231].
The human CELF-1 (also known as CUG-BP or BRUNOL-2) binds to RNA substrates and recruits PARN deadenylase [PMID: 16601207]. It preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements [PMID: 11124939]. CELF-1 has been implicated in onset of type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1), a neuromuscular disease associated with an unstable CUG triplet expansion in the 3'-UTR (3'-untranslated region) of the DMPK (myotonic dystrophy protein kinase) gene [PMID: 8948631, PMID: 16862542]. CELF-1 contain three highly conserved RNA recognition motifs (RRMs): two consecutive RRMs (RRM1 and RRM2) situated in the N-terminal region followed by a linker region and the third RRM (RRM3) close to the C terminus of the protein.
The Xenopus homologue of CELF-1 is EDEN-BP (embryo deadenylation element-binding protein), which mediates sequence-specific deadenylation of Eg5 mRNA. It binds specifically to the EDEN motif in the 3'-untranslated regions of maternal mRNAs and targets these mRNAs for deadenylation and translational repression [PMID: 18267972]. The two N-terminal RRMs of EDEN-BP are necessary for the interaction with EDEN as well as a part of the linker region (between RRM2 and RRM3). Oligomerization of EDEN-BP is required for specific mRNA deadenylation and binding [PMID: 16836486].
CELF-2 (also known as CUGBP2 or ETR-3) shares high sequence identity with CELF-1, but shows different binding specificity; it binds preferentially to sequences with UG repeats and UGUU motifs. It also binds to the 3'-UTR of cyclooxygenase-2 messages, affecting both translation and mRNA stability, and binds to apoB mRNA, regulating its C to U editing [PMID: 11577082]. CELF-2 also contains three highly conserved RRMs. It binds to RNA via the first two RRMs, which are also important for localization in the cytoplasm. The splicing activation or repression activity of CELF-2 on some specific substrates is mediated by RRM1/RRM2. Both, RRM1 and RRM2 of CELF-2, can activate cardiac troponin T (cTNT) exon 5 inclusion. In addition, CELF-2 possesses a typical arginine and lysine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C terminus, within RRM3 [PMID: 15226369].
- cd12634 (RRM2_CELF1_2)