Tuberin (IPR003913)

Short name: Tuberin

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor genes. The disease is characterised by hamartomas in one or more organs (including brain, skin, heart and kidney) giving rise to a broad phenotypic spectrum (including seizures, mental retardation, renal dysfunction and dermatological abnormalities. TSC2 encodes tuberin, a putative GTPase activating protein for rap1 and rab5. The TSC1 gene was recently identified and codes for hamartin, a novel protein with no significant similarity to tuberin or any other known vertebrate protein [PMID: 9580671]. Hamartin and tuberin have been shown to associate physically in vivo, their interaction being mediated by predicted coiled-coil domains. It is thought that hamartin and tuberin function in the same complex, rather than in separate pathways. Moreover, because oligomerisation of the hamartin C-terminal coiled coil domain is inhibited by the presence of tuberin, it is possible that tuberin acts as a chaperone, preventing hamartin self-aggregation [PMID: 9580671].

Tuberin is a widely expressed 1784-amino-acid protein. Expression of the wild-type gene in TSC2 mutant tumour cells inhibits proliferation and tumorigenicity. This "suppressor" activity is encoded by a functional domain in the C terminus that shares similarity with the GTPase activating protein Rap1GAP [PMID: 7558029]. It is thought that tuberin functions as a Rab5GAP in vivo to negatively regulate Rab5-GTP activity in endocytosis [PMID: 9045618]. It also acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the small GTPase RheB, a direct activator of the protein kinase activity of mTORC1 [PMID: 12271141, PMID: 15340059].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0032007 negative regulation of TOR signaling
GO:0043547 positive regulation of GTPase activity

Molecular Function

GO:0005096 GTPase activator activity

Cellular Component

GO:0033596 TSC1-TSC2 complex

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.