Pathways & interactions
Clathrin/coatomer adaptor, adaptin-like, N-terminal (IPR002553)
Short name: Clathrin/coatomer_adapt-like_N
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
Proteins synthesized on the ribosome and processed in the endoplasmic reticulum are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and from there via small carrier vesicles to their final destination compartment. This traffic is bidirectional, to ensure that proteins required to form vesicles are recycled. Vesicles have specific coat proteins (such as clathrin or coatomer) that are important for cargo selection and direction of transfer [PMID: 15261670].
Clathrin coats contain both clathrin and adaptor complexes that link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. Clathrin-associated protein complexes are believed to interact with the cytoplasmic tails of membrane proteins, leading to their selection and concentration. The two major types of clathrin adaptor complexes are the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP) complexes, and the monomeric GGA (Golgi-localising, Gamma-adaptin ear domain homology, ARF-binding proteins) adaptors [PMID: 17449236]. All AP complexes are heterotetramers composed of two large subunits (adaptins), a medium subunit (mu) and a small subunit (sigma). Each subunit has a specific function. Adaptin subunits recognise and bind to clathrin through their hinge region (clathrin box), and recruit accessory proteins that modulate AP function through their C-terminal appendage domains. By contrast, GGAs are monomers composed of four domains, which have functions similar to AP subunits: an N-terminal VHS (Vps27p/Hrs/Stam) domain, a GAT (GGA and Tom1) domain, a hinge region, and a C-terminal GAE (gamma-adaptin ear) domain. The GAE domain is similar to the AP gamma-adaptin ear domain, being responsible for the recruitment of accessory proteins that regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis [PMID: 12858162].
While clathrin mediates endocytic protein transport from ER to Golgi, coatomers (COPI, COPII) primarily mediate intra-Golgi transport, as well as the reverse Golgi to ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins [PMID: 14690497]. Coatomers reversibly associate with Golgi (non-clathrin-coated) vesicles to mediate protein transport and for budding from Golgi membranes [PMID: 17041781]. Coatomer complexes are hetero-oligomers composed of at least an alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta subunits.
This entry represents the N-terminal domain of various adaptins from different AP clathrin adaptor complexes (including AP1, AP2, AP3 and AP4), and from the beta and gamma subunits of various coatomer (COP) adaptors. This domain has a 2-layer alpha/alpha fold that forms a right-handed superhelix, and is a member of the ARM repeat superfamily [PMID: 12086608]. The N-terminal region of the various AP adaptor proteins share strong sequence identity; by contrast, the C-terminal domains of different adaptins share similar structural folds, but have little sequence identity [PMID: 2495531]. It has been proposed that the N-terminal domain interacts with another uniform component of the coated vesicles.
- PF01602 (Adaptin_N)