Pathways & interactions
RNA polymerase sigma factor 70, ECF, conserved site (IPR000838)
Short name: RNA_pol_sigma70_ECF_CS
The bacterial core RNA polymerase complex, which consists of five subunits, is sufficient for transcription elongation and termination but is unable to initiate transcription. Transcription initiation from promoter elements requires a sixth, dissociable subunit called a sigma factor, which reversibly associates with the core RNA polymerase complex to form a holoenzyme [PMID: 3052291]. RNA polymerase recruits alternative sigma factors as a means of switching on specific regulons. Most bacteria express a multiplicity of sigma factors. Two of these factors, sigma-70 (gene rpoD), generally known as the major or primary sigma factor, and sigma-54 (gene rpoN or ntrA) direct the transcription of a wide variety of genes. The other sigma factors, known as alternative sigma factors, are required for the transcription of specific subsets of genes.
With regard to sequence similarity, sigma factors can be grouped into two classes, the sigma-54 and sigma-70 families. Sequence alignments of the sigma70 family members reveal four conserved regions that can be further divided into subregions eg. sub-region 2.2, which may be involved in the binding of the sigma factor to the core RNA polymerase; and sub-region 4.2, which seems to harbor a DNA-binding 'helix-turn-helix' motif involved in binding the conserved -35 region of promoters recognised by the major sigma factors [PMID: 3092189, PMID: 1597408].
The plastids of higher plants originating from an ancestral cyanobacterial endosymbiont also contain sigma factors that are encoded by a small family of nuclear genes. All plastid sigma factors belong to the superfamily of sigmaA/sigma70 and have sequences homologous to the conserved regions 1.2, 2, 3, and 4 of bacterial sigma factors [PMID: 25596450].
The proteins in this entry are currently known to belong to this sigma factor subfamily, known as ECF; these include Pseudomonas aeruginosa algU; Myxococcus xanthus carQ; Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus) plasmid pMOL28-encoded cnrH; Escherichia coli fecI; Pseudomonas syringae hrpL; rpoE from E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae; Streptomyces coelicolor sigE; and Bacillus subtilis sigma factors sigV, sigX, sigY and sigZ.
No terms assigned in this category.
- PS01063 (SIGMA70_ECF)