Cys/Met metabolism, pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme (IPR000277)

Short name: Cys/Met-Metab_PyrdxlP-dep_enz

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships


Pyridoxal phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine or pyridoxal). Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a versatile catalyst, acting as a coenzyme in a multitude of reactions, including decarboxylation, deamination and transamination [PMID: 8690703, PMID: 7748903, PMID: 15189147]. PLP-dependent enzymes are primarily involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids and amino acid-derived metabolites, but they are also found in the biosynthetic pathways of amino sugars and in the synthesis or catabolism of neurotransmitters; pyridoxal phosphate can also inhibit DNA polymerases and several steroid receptors [PMID: 17109392]. Inadequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate in the brain can cause neurological dysfunction, particularly epilepsy [PMID: 16763894].

PLP enzymes exist in their resting state as a Schiff base, the aldehyde group of PLP forming a linkage with the epsilon-amino group of an active site lysine residue on the enzyme. The alpha-amino group of the substrate displaces the lysine epsilon-amino group, in the process forming a new aldimine with the substrate. This aldimine is the common central intermediate for all PLP-catalysed reactions, enzymatic and non-enzymatic [PMID: 15581583].

A number of pyridoxal-dependent enzymes involved in the metabolism of cysteine, homocysteine and methionine have been shown [PMID: 1577698, PMID: 8511966] to be evolutionary related. These enzymes are proteins of about 400 amino-acid residues. The pyridoxal-P group is attached to a lysine residue located in the central section of these enzymes.

One of these enzymes is the sulfhydrylase FUB7 from fungi such as Gibberella and Fusarium. The gene is part of a cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of fusaric acid, a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity to animals and humans, but with high phytotoxic properties [PMID: 26662839].

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE patterns