EC - Lactate racemase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
lactate racemase
Other names:
hydroxyacid racemase
lactic acid racemase
larA (gene name)
Systematic name:
lactate racemase



The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ERGO , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0050043
CAS Registry Number: 9024-05-9


  1. Huennekens, F.M., Mahler, H.R. and Nordmann, J.
    Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an α-hydroxy acid racemase.
    Arch. Biochem. 30: 77-89 (1951). [PMID: 14800428]
  2. Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S.
    Racemase I cell-free racemase.
    Enzymologia 15: 259-266 (1953).
  3. Goffin, P., Deghorain, M., Mainardi, J. L., Tytgat, I., Champomier-Verges, M. C., Kleerebezem, M., Hols, P.
    Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum.
    J. Bacteriol. 187: 6750-6761 (2005). [PMID: 16166538]
  4. Desguin, B., Goffin, P., Viaene, E., Kleerebezem, M., Martin-Diaconescu, V., Maroney, M. J., Declercq, J. P., Soumillion, P., Hols, P.
    Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system.
    Nat Commun 5: 3615 (2014). [PMID: 24710389]
  5. Desguin, B., Zhang, T., Soumillion, P., Hols, P., Hu, J., Hausinger, R. P.
    METALLOPROTEINS. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase.
    Science 349: 66-69 (2015). [PMID: 26138974]
  6. Yu, M. J., Chen, S. L.
    From NAD+ to Nickel Pincer Complex: A Significant Cofactor Evolution Presented by Lactate Racemase.
    Chemistry 23: 7545-7557 (2017). [PMID: 28374531]

[EC created 1961]