EC - Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase
Other names:
THCA synthase
Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase
Systematic name:
cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate-forming)




A flavoprotein (FAD). The cofactor is covalently bound. Part of the cannabinoids biosynthetic pathway in the plant Cannabis sativa. The enzyme can also convert cannabinerolate (the (Z)-isomer of cannabigerolate) to Δ9-THCA with lower efficiency. The traditional numbering called Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolate, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolate. Systematic peripheral numbering is now recommended.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0102778


  1. Taura, F., Morimoto, S. Shoyama, Y. and Mechoulam, R.
    First direct evidence for the mechanism of Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid biosynthesis.
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117: 9766-9767 (1995).
  2. Sirikantaramas, S., Morimoto, S., Shoyama, Y., Ishikawa, Y., Wada, Y., Shoyama, Y., Taura, F.
    The gene controlling marijuana psychoactivity: molecular cloning and heterologous expression of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.
    J. Biol. Chem. 279: 39767-39774 (2004). [PMID: 15190053]
  3. Shoyama, Y., Takeuchi, A., Taura, F., Tamada, T., Adachi, M., Kuroki, R., Shoyama, Y., Morimoto, S.
    Crystallization of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase from Cannabis sativa.
    Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61: 799-801 (2005). [PMID: 16511162]
  4. Shoyama, Y., Tamada, T., Kurihara, K., Takeuchi, A., Taura, F., Arai, S., Blaber, M., Shoyama, Y., Morimoto, S., Kuroki, R.
    Structure and Function of ?1-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA) Synthase, the Enzyme Controlling the Psychoactivity of Cannabissativa.
    J. Mol. Biol. 423: 96-105 (2012). [PMID: 22766313]

[EC created 2012]