EC - Serine racemase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
serine racemase
Other name:
Systematic name:
serine racemase




A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that is highly selective for L-serine as substrate. D-Serine is found in type-II astrocytes in mammalian brain, where it appears to be an endogenous ligand of the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors [1,2]. The reaction can also occur in the reverse direction but does so more slowly at physiological serine concentrations [4].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Protein domains and families: PROSITE:PDOC00149
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0030378
CAS Registry Number: 77114-08-0


  1. Wolosker, H., Blackshaw, S. and Snyder, S.H.
    Serine racemase: a glial enzyme synthesizing D-serine to regulate glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate neurotransmission.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 13409-13414 (1999). [PMID: 10557334]
  2. Wolosker, H., Sheth, K.N., Takahashi, M., Mothet, J.-P., Brady, R.O., Jr., Ferris, C.D. and Snyder, S.H.
    Purification of serine racemase: biosynthesis of the neuromodulator D-serine.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 721-725 (1999). [PMID: 9892700]
  3. De Miranda, J., Santoro, A., Engelender, S. and Wolosker, H.
    Human serine racemase: moleular cloning, genomic organization and functional analysis.
    Gene 256: 183-188 (2000). [PMID: 11054547]
  4. Foltyn, V.N., Bendikov, I., De Miranda, J., Panizzutti, R., Dumin, E., Shleper, M., Li, P., Toney, M.D., Kartvelishvily, E. and Wolosker, H.
    Serine racemase modulates intracellular D-serine levels through an α,β-elimination activity.
    J. Biol. Chem. 280: 1754-1763 (2005). [PMID: 15536068]

[EC created 2007]