EC - Caffeine synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
caffeine synthase
Other names:
dimethylxanthine methyltransferase
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Systematic name:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase



Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0102741 , GO:0102740


  1. Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Fujimura, T., Iwama, M., Irie, M., Crozier, A. and Ashihara, H.
    Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves.
    Plant Physiol. 120: 579-586 (1999). [PMID: 10364410]
  2. Mizuno, K., Okuda, A., Kato, M., Yoneyama, N., Tanaka, H., Ashihara, H. and Fujimura, T.
    Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.).
    FEBS Lett. 534: 75-81 (2003). [PMID: 12527364]
  3. Uefuji, H., Ogita, S., Yamaguchi, Y., Koizumi, N. and Sano, H.
    Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants.
    Plant Physiol. 132: 372-380 (2003). [PMID: 12746542]
  4. Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Crozier, A., Fujimura, T. and Ashihara, H.
    Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves.
    Nature 406: 956-957 (2000). [PMID: 10984041]

[EC created 2007]