EC - Rhodopsin kinase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
rhodopsin kinase
Other names:
opsin kinase
cone opsin kinase
G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 1
GPCR kinase 1
opsin kinase (phosphorylating)
rhodopsin kinase (phosphorylating)
Systematic name:
ATP:rhodopsin phosphotransferase



Requires G-protein for activation and therefore belongs to the family of G-protein-dependent receptor kinases (GRKs). Acts on the bleached or activated form of rhodopsin; also phosphorylates the β-adrenergic receptor, but more slowly. Does not act on casein, histones or phosphvitin. Inhibited by Zn2+ and digitonin (cf. EC, β-adrenergic-receptor kinase and EC, G-protein-coupled receptor kinase).

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Protein domains and families: PROSITE:PDOC00100
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0050254
CAS Registry Number: 54004-64-7
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (12) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Benovic, J.L., Mayor, F., Jr., Somers, R.L., Caron, M.G. and Lefkowitz, R.J.
    Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin by β-adrenergic receptor kinase.
    Nature 321: 869-872 (1986). [PMID: 3014340]
  2. Shichi, H. and Somers, R.L.
    Light-dependent phosphorylation of rhodopsin. Purification and properties of rhodopsin kinase.
    J. Biol. Chem. 253: 7040-7046 (1978). [PMID: 690139]
  3. Palczewski, K., McDowell, J.H. and Hargrave, P.A.
    Purification and characterization of rhodopsin kinase.
    J. Biol. Chem. 263: 14067-14073 (1988). [PMID: 2844754]
  4. Weller, M., Virmaux, N. and Mandel, P.
    Light-stimulated phosphorylation of rhodopsin in the retina: the presence of a protein kinase that is specific for photobleached rhodopsin.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 381-385 (1975). [PMID: 164024]
  5. Cha, K., Bruel, C., Inglese, J. and Khorana, H.G.
    Rhodopsin kinase: expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells, and characterization of post-translational modifications.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 10577-10582 (1997). [PMID: 9380677]
  6. Khani, S.C., Abitbol, M., Yamamoto, S., Maravic-Magovcevic, I. and Dryja, T.P.
    Characterization and chromosomal localization of the gene for human rhodopsin kinase.
    Genomics 35: 571-576 (1996). [PMID: 8812493]
  7. Chen, C.-K., Zhang, K., Church-Kopish, J., Huang, W., Zhang, H., Chen, Y.-J., Frederick, J.M. and Baehr, W.
    Characterization of human GRK7 as a potential cone opsin kinase.
    Mol. Vis. 7: 305-313 (2001). [PMID: 11754336]
  8. Willets, J.M., Challiss, R.A.J., Nahorski, S.R.
    Non-visual GRKs: are we seeing the whole picture?
    Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 24: 626-633 (2003). [PMID: 14654303]

[EC created 1989 as EC (EC created 1978, incorporated 1992), transferred 2005 to EC]