EC - Anthocyanidin reductase [(2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol-forming]

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
anthocyanidin reductase [(2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol-forming]
Other names:
ANR (gene name) [ambiguous]
flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
anthocyanidin reductase [ambiguous]
Systematic name:
(2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ 3,4-oxidoreductase



The enzyme participates in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway found in plants. It catalyses the double reduction of anthocyanidins, producing (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol monomers required for the formation of proanthocyanidins. While the enzyme from the legume Medicago truncatula (MtANR) can use both NADPH and NADH as reductant, that from the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (AtANR) uses only NADPH. Also, while the substrate preference of MtANR is cyanidin>pelargonidin>delphinidin, the reverse preference is found with AtANR. cf. EC, anthocyanidin reductase [(2S)-flavan-3-ol-forming].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0033729
CAS Registry Number: 93389-48-1


  1. Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B., Paiva, N.L., Ferreira, D. and Dixon, R.A.
    Role of anthocyanidin reductase, encoded by BANYULS in plant flavonoid biosynthesis.
    Science 299: 396-399 (2003). [PMID: 12532018]
  2. Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B. and Dixon, R.A.
    Anthocyanidin reductases from Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 422: 91-102 (2004). [PMID: 14725861]
  3. Pang, Y., Abeysinghe, I. S., He, J., He, X., Huhman, D., Mewan, K. M., Sumner, L. W., Yun, J., Dixon, R. A.
    Functional characterization of proanthocyanidin pathway enzymes from tea and their application for metabolic engineering.
    Plant Physiol. 161: 1103-1116 (2013). [PMID: 23288883]

[EC created 2004, modified 2016]