EC - (R)-limonene synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
(R)-limonene synthase
Other names:
(+)-limonene synthase
geranyldiphosphate diphosphate lyase [(+)-(R)-limonene-forming]
Systematic name:
geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (+)-(4R)-limonene-forming]




Forms the first step of carvone biosynthesis in caraway. The enzyme from Carum carvi (caraway) seeds requires a divalent metal ion (preferably Mn2+) for catalysis. This enzyme occurs in Citrus, Carum (caraway) and Anethum (dill); (−)-limonene, however, is made in the fir, Abies, and mint, Mentha, by EC, (4S)-limonene synthase.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0034002


  1. Bouwmeester, H.J., Gershenzon, J., Konings, M.C.J.M. and Croteau, R.
    Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway. I. Demonstration of enzyme activities and their changes with development.
    Plant Physiol. 117: 901-912 (1998). [PMID: 9662532]
  2. Lucker, J., El Tamer, M.K., Schwab, W., Verstappen, F.W., van der Plas, L.H., Bouwmeester, H.J. and Verhoeven, H.A.
    Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 269: 3160-3171 (2000). [PMID: 12084056]
  3. Maruyama, T., Ito, M., Kiuchi, F. and Honda, G.
    Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of d-limonene synthase from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.
    Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24: 373-377 (2001). [PMID: 11305598]

[EC created 2003]