EC - Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
Other names:
acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase
HFA1 (gene name)
ACC1 (gene name)
acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)
Systematic name:
acetyl-CoA:hydrogencarbonate ligase (ADP-forming)




This enzyme is a multi-domain polypeptide that catalyses three different activities - a biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), a biotin carboxylase that catalyses the transfer of a carboxyl group from hydrogencarbonate to the biotin molecule carried by the carrier protein, and the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin to acetyl-CoA, forming malonyl-CoA. In some organisms these activities are catalysed by separate enzymes (see EC, biotin carboxylase, and EC, acetyl-CoA carboxytransferase). The carboxylation of the carrier protein requires ATP, while the transfer of the carboxyl group to acetyl-CoA does not.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Protein domains and families: PROSITE:PDOC00167 , PROSITE:PDOC00676 , PROSITE:PDOC50979 , PROSITE:PDOC50980
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0003989
CAS Registry Number: 9023-93-2
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (44) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Hatch, M.D. and Stumpf, P.K.
    Fat metabolism in higher plants. XVI. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and acyl coenzyme A-malonyl coenzyme A transcarboxylase from wheat germ.
    J. Biol. Chem. 236 : 2879-2885 (1961). [PMID: 13905314]
  2. Matsuhashi, M., Matsuhashi, S. and Lynen, F.
    Zur Biosynthese der Fettsäuren. V. Die Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase aus Rattenleber und ihre Aktivierung durch Citronsäure.
    Biochem. Z. 340 : 263-289 (1964). [PMID: 14317958]
  3. Matsuhashi, M., Matsuhashi, S., Numa, S. and Lynen, F.
    [On the biosynthesis of fatty acids. IV. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase from yeast.](in German)
    Biochem. Z. 340 : 243-262 (1964). [PMID: 14317957]
  4. Vagelos, P.
    Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis.
    Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 4 : 119-166 (1971).
  5. Wakil, S.J.
    A malonic acid derivative as an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis.
    J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80 : 6465 (1958).
  6. Trumble, G. E., Smith, M. A., Winder, W. W.
    Purification and characterization of rat skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase.
    Eur. J. Biochem. 231 : 192-198 (1995). [PMID: 7628470]
  7. Cheng, D., Chu, C. H., Chen, L., Feder, J. N., Mintier, G. A., Wu, Y., Cook, J. W., Harpel, M. R., Locke, G. A., An, Y., Tamura, J. K.
    Expression, purification, and characterization of human and rat acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) isozymes.
    Protein Expr. Purif. 51 : 11-21 (2007). [PMID: 16854592]
  8. Kim, K. W., Yamane, H., Zondlo, J., Busby, J., Wang, M.
    Expression, purification, and characterization of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2.
    Protein Expr. Purif. 53 : 16-23 (2007). [PMID: 17223360]

[EC created 1961, modified 2018]