EC - Enterobactin synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
enterobactin synthase
Other names:
2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine synthetase
N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-serine synthetase
2,3-dihydroxybenzoate—serine ligase
Systematic name:
2,3-dihydroxybenzoate:L-serine ligase



This enzyme complex catalyses the conversion of three molecules each of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and L-serine to form the siderophore enterobactin. In Escherichia coli the complex is formed by EntB (an aryl carrier protein that has to be activated by 4'-phosphopantetheine), EntD (a phosphopantetheinyl transferase that activates EntB), EntE (catalyses the ATP-dependent condensation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate and holo-EntB to form the covalently arylated form of EntB), and EntF (a four domain protein that catalyses the activation of L-serine by ATP, the condensation of the activated L-serine with the activated 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate, and the trimerization of three such moieties to a single enterobactin molecule).

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0047527
CAS Registry Number: 37318-63-1


  1. Brot, N. and Goodwin, J.
    Regulation of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine synthetase by iron.
    J. Biol. Chem. 243 : 510-513 (1968). [PMID: 4966114]
  2. Rusnak, F., Faraci, W. S., Walsh, C. T.
    Subcloning, expression, and purification of the enterobactin biosynthetic enzyme 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase: demonstration of enzyme-bound (2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)adenylate product.
    Biochemistry 28 : 6827-6835 (1989). [PMID: 2531000]
  3. Rusnak, F., Liu, J., Quinn, N., Berchtold, G. A., Walsh, C. T.
    Subcloning of the enterobactin biosynthetic gene entB: expression, purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of isochorismatase.
    Biochemistry 29 : 1425-1435 (1990). [PMID: 2139796]
  4. Rusnak, F., Sakaitani, M., Drueckhammer, D., Reichert, J., Walsh, C. T.
    Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli siderophore enterobactin: sequence of the entF gene, expression and purification of EntF, and analysis of covalent phosphopantetheine.
    Biochemistry 30 : 2916-2927 (1991). [PMID: 1826089]
  5. Gehring, A. M., Mori, I., Walsh, C. T.
    Reconstitution and characterization of the Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase from EntB, EntE, and EntF.
    Biochemistry 37 : 2648-2659 (1998). [PMID: 9485415]
  6. Shaw-Reid, C. A., Kelleher, N. L., Losey, H. C., Gehring, A. M., Berg, C., Walsh, C. T.
    Assembly line enzymology by multimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetases: the thioesterase domain of E. coli EntF catalyzes both elongation and cyclolactonization.
    Chem. Biol. 6 : 385-400 (1999). [PMID: 10375542]

[EC created 1972, modified 2012]