EC - Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
Other names:
PEP carboxylase
phosphoenolpyruvic carboxylase
phosphopyruvate (phosphate) carboxylase
phosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (phosphorylating)
Systematic name:
phosphate:oxaloacetate carboxy-lyase (adding phosphate; phosphoenolpyruvate-forming)



This enzyme replenishes oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle when operating in the reverse direction. The reaction proceeds in two steps: formation of carboxyphosphate and the enolate form of pyruvate, followed by carboxylation of the enolate and release of phosphate.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Protein domains and families: PROSITE:PDOC00330
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0008964
CAS Registry Number: 9067-77-0
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (264) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Chen, J.H. and Jones, R.F.
    Multiple forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Chlamydomonas reeinhardtii.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 214 : 318-325 (1970). [PMID: 5501374]
  2. Mazelis, M. and Vennesland, B.
    Carbon dioxide fixation into oxalacetate in higher plants.
    Plant Physiol. 32 : 591-600 (1957).
  3. Tovar-Mendez, A., Mujica-Jimenez, C., Munoz-Clares, R. A.
    Physiological implications of the kinetics of maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.
    Plant Physiol. 123 : 149-160 (2000). [PMID: 10806233]

[EC created 1961, modified 2011]