EC - Retinoid isomerohydrolase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
retinoid isomerohydrolase
Other names:
all-trans-retinyl-palmitate hydrolase [ambiguous]
retinol isomerase [ambiguous]
all-trans-retinol isomerase:hydrolase [ambiguous]
all-trans-retinylester 11-cis isomerohydrolase
RPE65 (gene name)
Systematic name:
all-trans-retinyl ester acylhydrolase, 11-cis retinol forming



This enzyme, which operates in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), catalyses the cleavage and isomerization of all-trans-retinyl fatty acid esters to 11-cis-retinol, a key step in the regeneration of the visual chromophore in the vertebrate visual cycle [4]. Interaction of the enzyme with the membrane is critical for its enzymatic activity [6].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ERGO , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0052885 , GO:0052884
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (11) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Blaner, W.S., Das, S.R., Gouras, P. and Flood, M.T.
    Hydrolysis of 11-cis- and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by homogenates of human retinal epithelial cells.
    J. Biol. Chem. 262 : 53-58 (1987). [PMID: 3793734]
  2. Bernstein, P. S., Law, W. C., Rando, R. R.
    Isomerization of all-trans-retinoids to 11-cis-retinoids in vitro.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 : 1849-1853 (1987). [PMID: 3494246]
  3. Bridges, C. D., Alvarez, R. A.
    The visual cycle operates via an isomerase acting on all-trans retinol in the pigment epithelium.
    Science 236 : 1678-1680 (1987). [PMID: 3603006]
  4. Moiseyev, G., Chen, Y., Takahashi, Y., Wu, B. X., Ma, J. X.
    RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in the retinoid visual cycle.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 : 12413-12418 (2005). [PMID: 16116091]
  5. Nikolaeva, O., Takahashi, Y., Moiseyev, G., Ma, J. X.
    Purified RPE65 shows isomerohydrolase activity after reassociation with a phospholipid membrane.
    FEBS J. 276 : 3020-3030 (2009). [PMID: 19490105]
  6. Golczak, M., Kiser, P. D., Lodowski, D. T., Maeda, A., Palczewski, K.
    Importance of membrane structural integrity for RPE65 retinoid isomerization activity.
    J. Biol. Chem. 285 : 9667-9682 (2010). [PMID: 20100834]

[EC created 1989 (EC created 1989, incorporated 2011), modified 2011]