EC - Aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
aminoglycoside 2''-phosphotransferase
Other names:
aphD (gene name)
aminoglycoside (2'') kinase
gentamicin kinase [ambiguous]
gentamicin phosphotransferase [ambiguous]
Systematic name:
GTP:gentamicin 2''-O-phosphotransferase




Requires Mg2+. This bacterial enzyme phosphorylates many 4,6-disubstituted aminoglycoside antibiotics that have a hydroxyl group at position 2'', including kanamycin A, kanamycin B, tobramycin, dibekacin, arbekacin, amikacin, gentamicin C, sisomicin and netilmicin. In most, but not all, cases the phosphorylation confers resistance against the antibiotic. Some forms of the enzyme use ATP as a phosphate donor in appreciable amount. The enzyme is often found as a bifunctional enzyme that also catalyses 6'-aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase activity. The bifunctional enzyme is the most clinically important aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, responsible for high-level resistance in both Enterococci and Staphylococci.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB


  1. Ferretti, J. J., Gilmore, K. S., Courvalin, P.
    Nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene specifying the bifunctional 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase 2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase enzyme in Streptococcus faecalis and identification and cloning of gene regions specifying the two activities.
    J. Bacteriol. 167 : 631-638 (1986). [PMID: 3015884]
  2. Frase, H., Toth, M., Vakulenko, S. B.
    Revisiting the nucleotide and aminoglycoside substrate specificity of the bifunctional aminoglycoside acetyltransferase(6')-Ie/aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(2'')-Ia enzyme.
    J. Biol. Chem. 287 : 43262-43269 (2012). [PMID: 23115238]

[EC created 2015]