EC - Vinorine synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
vinorine synthase
Systematic name:
acyl-CoA:16-epivellosimine O-acetyltransferase (cyclizing)



The reaction proceeds in two stages. The indole nitrogen of 16-epivellosimine interacts with its aldehyde group giving an hydroxy-substituted new ring. This alcohol is then acetylated. Also acts on gardneral (11-methoxy-16-epivellosimine). Generates the ajmalan skeleton, which forms part of the route to ajmaline.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0050636
CAS Registry Number: 88844-97-7


  1. Pfitzner, A., Polz, L. and Stöckigt, J.
    Properties of vinorine synthase the Rauwolfia enzyme involved in the formation of the ajmaline skeleton.
    Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 41 : 103-114 (1986).
  2. Bayer, A., Ma, X. and Stöckigt, J.
    Acetyltransfer in natural product biosynthesis—--functional cloning and molecular analysis of vinorine synthase.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. 12 : 2787-2795 (2004). [PMID: 15110860]
  3. Ma, X., Koepke, J., Bayer, A., Linhard, V., Fritzsch, G., Zhang, B., Michel, H. and Stöckigt, J.
    Vinorine synthase from Rauvolfia: the first example of crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an enzyme of the BAHD superfamily.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1701 : 129-132 (2004). [PMID: 15450182]
  4. Ma, X., Koepke, J., Panjikar, S., Fritzsch, G. and Stöckigt, J.
    Crystal structure of vinorine synthase, the first representative of the BAHD superfamily.
    J. Biol. Chem. 280 : 13576-13583 (2005). [PMID: 15665331]

[EC created 2002]