EC - 4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)
Other names:
dehydrosqualene desaturase [ambiguous]
CrtN [ambiguous]
4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase [ambiguous]
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase [ambiguous]
Systematic name:
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)



The enzyme catalyses four successive dehydrogenations, resulting in production of 4,4'-diapolycopene. While the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was only shown to produce 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in vivo [4], it is able to catalyse the last reaction in vitro [5].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0102223


  1. Wieland, B., Feil, C., Gloria-Maercker, E., Thumm, G., Lechner, M., Bravo, J. M., Poralla, K., Gotz, F.
    Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus.
    J. Bacteriol. 176 : 7719-7726 (1994). [PMID: 8002598]
  2. Raisig, A., Sandmann, G.
    4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C30 carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus.
    J. Bacteriol. 181 : 6184-6187 (1999). [PMID: 10498735]
  3. Raisig, A., Sandmann, G.
    Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C30 and C40 carotenoid biosynthetic pathways.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1533 : 164-170 (2001). [PMID: 11566453]
  4. Tao, L., Schenzle, A., Odom, J. M., Cheng, Q.
    Novel carotenoid oxidase involved in biosynthesis of 4,4'-diapolycopene dialdehyde.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 : 3294-3301 (2005). [PMID: 15933032]
  5. Yoshida, K., Ueda, S., Maeda, I.
    Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering.
    Biotechnol. Lett. 31 : 1789-1793 (2009). [PMID: 19618272]

[EC created 2011, modified 2011]