EC - Crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase
Other name:
caiA (gene name)
Systematic name:
γ-butyrobetainyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase



The enzyme has been purified from the bacterium Escherichia coli O44 K74, in which it forms a complex with EC, L-carnitine CoA-transferase. The electron donor is believed to be an electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) encoded by the fixA and fixB genes.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (44) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Roth, S., Jung, K., Jung, H., Hommel, R. K., Kleber, H. P.
    Crotonobetaine reductase from Escherichia coli--a new inducible enzyme of anaerobic metabolization of L(-)-carnitine.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 65 : 63-69 (1994). [PMID: 8060125]
  2. Preusser, A., Wagner, U., Elssner, T., Kleber, H. P.
    Crotonobetaine reductase from Escherichia coli consists of two proteins.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1431 : 166-178 (1999). [PMID: 10209289]
  3. Elssner, T., Hennig, L., Frauendorf, H., Haferburg, D., Kleber, H. P.
    Isolation, identification, and synthesis of gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA and crotonobetainyl-CoA, compounds involved in carnitine metabolism of E. coli.
    Biochemistry 39 : 10761-10769 (2000). [PMID: 10978161]
  4. Walt, A., Kahn, M. L.
    The fixA and fixB genes are necessary for anaerobic carnitine reduction in Escherichia coli.
    J. Bacteriol. 184 : 4044-4047 (2002). [PMID: 12081978]

[EC created 2017]