EC - Aldehyde oxidase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
aldehyde oxidase
Other names:
quinoline oxidase
retinal oxidase
Systematic name:
aldehyde:oxygen oxidoreductase




Contains molybdenum, [2Fe-2S] centres and FAD. The enzyme from liver exhibits a broad substrate specificity, and is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the oxidation of N-heterocycles and aldehydes and the reduction of N-oxides, nitrosamines, hydroxamic acids, azo dyes, nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and sulfoxides [4,6]. The enzyme is also responsible for the oxidation of retinal, an activity that was initially attributed to a distinct enzyme (EC, retinal oxidase) [5,7].

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Protein domains and families: PROSITE:PDOC00484
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0004031 , GO:0102797 , GO:0102798
CAS Registry Number: 9029-07-6
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (26) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Gordon, A.H., Green, D.E. and Subrahmanyan, V.
    Liver aldehyde oxidase.
    Biochem. J. 34 : 764-774 (1940). [PMID: 16747217]
  2. Knox, W.E.
    The quinine-oxidizing enzyme and liver aldehyde oxidase.
    J. Biol. Chem. 163 : 699-711 (1946). [PMID: 20985642]
  3. Mahler, H.R., Mackler, B., Green, D.E. and Bock, R.M.
    Studies on metalloflavoproteins. III. Aldehyde oxidase: a molybdoflavoprotein.
    J. Biol. Chem. 210 : 465-480 (1954). [PMID: 13201608]
  4. Krenitsky, T. A., Neil, S. M., Elion, G. B., Hitchings, G. H.
    A comparison of the specificities of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 150 : 585-599 (1972). [PMID: 5044040]
  5. Tomita, S., Tsujita, M., Ichikawa, Y.
    Retinal oxidase is identical to aldehyde oxidase.
    FEBS Lett. 336 : 272-274 (1993). [PMID: 8262244]
  6. Yoshihara, S., Tatsumi, K.
    Purification and characterization of hepatic aldehyde oxidase in male and female mice.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 338 : 29-34 (1997). [PMID: 9015384]
  7. Huang, D.Y., Furukawa, A., Ichikawa, Y.
    Molecular cloning of retinal oxidase/aldehyde oxidase cDNAs from rabbit and mouse livers and functional expression of recombinant mouse retinal oxidase cDNA in Escherichia coli.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 364 : 264-272 (1999). [PMID: 10190983]
  8. Uchida, H., Kondo, D., Yamashita, A., Nagaosa, Y., Sakurai, T., Fujii, Y., Fujishiro, K., Aisaka, K., Uwajima, T.
    Purification and characterization of an aldehyde oxidase from Pseudomonas sp. KY 4690.
    FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 229 : 31-36 (2003). [PMID: 14659539]

[EC created 1961, modified 2002, modified 2004, modified 2012]