EC - Hapalindole-type alkaloid chlorinase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
hapalindole-type alkaloid chlorinase
Other names:
ambO5 (gene name)
welO5 (gene name)
Systematic name:
12-epi-fischerindole U,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (13-halogenating)



The enzyme, characterized from hapalindole-type alkaloids-producing cyanobacteria, is a specialized iron(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase that catalyses the chlorination of its substrates in a reaction that requires oxygen, chloride ions, ferrous iron and 2-oxoglutarate.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB


  1. Hillwig, M. L., Liu, X.
    A new family of iron-dependent halogenases acts on freestanding substrates.
    Nat. Chem. Biol. 10 : 921-923 (2014). [PMID: 25218740]
  2. Zhu, Q., Hillwig, M. L., Doi, Y., Liu, X.
    Aliphatic Halogenase Enables Late-Stage C-H Functionalization: Selective Synthesis of a Brominated Fischerindole Alkaloid with Enhanced Antibacterial Activity.
    Chembiochem 17 : 466-470 (2016). [PMID: 26749394]
  3. Hillwig, M. L., Zhu, Q., Ittiamornkul, K., Liu, X.
    Discovery of a Promiscuous Non-Heme Iron Halogenase in Ambiguine Alkaloid Biogenesis: Implication for an Evolvable Enzyme Family for Late-Stage Halogenation of Aliphatic Carbons in Small Molecules.
    Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 55 : 5780-5784 (2016). [PMID: 27027281]

[EC created 2018]