EC 1.14.15.21 - Zeaxanthin epoxidase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature
EC 1.14.15.21

Names

Accepted name:
zeaxanthin epoxidase
Other name:
zea-epoxidase
Systematic name:
zeaxanthin,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase

Reaction

Cofactor

Comments:

A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.23.5.1, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

References

  1. Büch, K., Stransky, H. and Hager, A.
    FAD is a further essential cofactor of the NAD(P)H and O2-dependent zeaxanthin-epoxidase.
    FEBS Lett. 376 : 45-48 (1996). [PMID: 8521963]
  2. Bugos, R.C., Hieber, A.D. and Yamamoto, H.Y.
    Xanthophyll cycle enzymes are members of the lipocalin family, the first identified from plants.
    J. Biol. Chem. 273 : 15321-15324 (1998). [PMID: 9624110]
  3. Thompson, A.J., Jackson, A.C., Parker, R.A., Morpeth, D.R., Burbidge, A. and Taylor, I.B.
    Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: regulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase mRNAs by light/dark cycles, water stress and abscisic acid.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 42 : 833-845 (2000). [PMID: 10890531]
  4. Hieber, A.D., Bugos, R.C. and Yamamoto, H.Y.
    Plant lipocalins: violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1482 : 84-91 (2000). [PMID: 11058750]
  5. Frommolt, R., Goss, R. and Wilhelm, C.
    The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
    Planta 213 : 446-456 (2001). [PMID: 11506368]
  6. Frommolt, R., Goss, R. and Wilhelm, C.
    Erratum Report. The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
    Planta 213 : 446-456 (2001). [PMID: 11506368]
  7. Matsubara, S., Morosinotto, T., Bassi, R., Christian, A.L., Fischer-Schliebs, E., Lüttge, U., Orthen, B., Franco, A.C., Scarano, F.R., Förster, B., Pogson, B.J. and Osmond, C.B.
    Occurrence of the lutein-epoxide cycle in mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae.
    Planta 217 : 868-879 (2003). [PMID: 12844265]

[EC 1.14.15.21 created 2005 as EC 1.14.13.90, transferred 2016 to EC 1.14.15.21]