EC - Germacrene A hydroxylase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
germacrene A hydroxylase
Other name:
GAO (gene name)
Systematic name:
(+)-germacrene-A,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (12-hydroxylating)




A cytochrome P450 (heme-thiolate) protein. This plant enzyme catalyses three steps in a pathway that leads to the biosynthesis of many sesquiterpenoid lactones. Formerly EC

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0106223


  1. Nguyen, D. T., Gopfert, J. C., Ikezawa, N., Macnevin, G., Kathiresan, M., Conrad, J., Spring, O., Ro, D. K.
    Biochemical conservation and evolution of germacrene A oxidase in asteraceae.
    J. Biol. Chem. 285 : 16588-16598 (2010). [PMID: 20351109]
  2. Liu, Q., Manzano, D., Tani?, N., Pesic, M., Bankovic, J., Pateraki, I., Ricard, L., Ferrer, A., de Vos, R., van de Krol, S., Bouwmeester, H.
    Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway.
    Metab. Eng. 23 : 145-153 (2014). [PMID: 24704560]

[EC created 2011 as EC, transferred 2018 to EC]