EC - Dihydroflavanol 4-reductase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase
Other names:
NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase
dihydromyricetin reductase
dihydroquercetin reductase
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase
DFR (gene name)
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Systematic name:
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase



This plant enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, is known to act on (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-dihydromyricetin, although some enzymes may act only on a subset of these compounds. Each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0045552
CAS Registry Numbers: 83682-99-9 98668-58-7
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (14) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Heller, W., Forkmann, G., Britsch, L. and Grisebach, H.
    Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis- diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
    Planta 165 : 284-287 (1985).
  2. Stafford, H.A. and Lester, H.H.
    Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis - the conversion of (+)- dihydromyricetin to its flavan-3,4-diol (leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-gallocatechin by reductases extracted from tissue-cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga-menziesii.
    Plant Physiol. 78 : 791-794 (1985). [PMID: 16664326]
  3. Fischer, D., Stich, K., Britsch, L., Grisebach, H.
    Purification and characterization of (+)dihydroflavonol (3-hydroxyflavanone) 4-reductase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis.
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 264 : 40-47 (1988). [PMID: 3293532]
  4. Li, H., Qiu, J., Chen, F., Lv, X., Fu, C., Zhao, D., Hua, X., Zhao, Q.
    Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa.
    Mol. Biol. Rep. 39 : 2991-2999 (2012). [PMID: 21701830]

[EC created 1989, modified 2016]