184.108.40.206 - Hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase
- Glyoxalase II.
S-(2-hydroxyacyl)glutathione + H2O = a 2-hydroxy carboxylate + glutathione + H(+)
There are no Cofactors for this Enzyme
Glyoxalase II participates in the cellular detoxification of cytotoxic and mutagenic 2-oxoaldehydes. Glyoxalase I converts methylglyoxal (a cytotoxic byproduct of many cellular reactions) and glutathione into S-D-lactoylglutathione (SLG) which is also cytotoxic; the role of glyoxalase II is to hydrolyse SLG into D-lactic acid and glutathione.
The substrate of this reaction is the product of Lactoylglutathione lyase, an enzyme which catalyses the initial steps in detoxifying methyl-glyoxyl. This enzyme regnerates the glutathione cofactor utilised by lactoylglutathione lyase.
|AA||Uniprot||Uniprot Resid||PDB||PDB Resid|
native state of cofactor regenerated, bimolecular nucleophilic addition, proton transfer, native state of enzyme regenerated, overall reactant used, unimolecular elimination by the conjugate base, overall product formed
Organism KM Value [mM] Substrate Comment Salmonella enterica 1.8 S-D-lactoylglutathione at pH 7.5 and 30°C Plasmodium falciparum 11 S-D-lactoylglutathione mutant R257D, at 25°C, in 100 mM MOPS/NaOH, pH 6.8 Leishmania infantum 180 S-D-lactoyltrypanothione wild type protein, pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication Saccharomyces cerevisiae 710 S-D-mandeloylglutathione pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication Oryza sativa 2000 S-Lactoylglutathione pH and temperature not specified in the publication
Organism Temperature Range Comment Cyberlindnera mrakii 25 - 55 25°C: about 60% of maximal activity, 55°C: about 70% of maximal activity
Organism pH Range Comment Oryza sativa 6 - 8 Brassica juncea 6 - 8.5 Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 = FACHB-418 6.5 - 8 enhanced enzyme activity in the pH range of 6.5-8.0 Arabidopsis thaliana 7 - 9 saturation kinetic behavior for the thioester hydrolysis reaction. At pH 9.0 ligand exchange at the zinc center via deprotonation of the alpha-hydroxy group of the thioester to give an equilibrium amount of a zinc alkoxide species
- Proline-mediated activation of glyoxalase II improve methylglyoxal detoxification in Oryza sativa L. under chromium injury: Clarification via vector analysis of enzymatic activities and gene expression.
- Catalytic Reaction Mechanism of Glyoxalase II: A Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Study.
- Identification of HAGHL as a novel metabolic oncogene regulating human colorectal cancer progression.
- Origin, Diversity, and Multiple Roles of Enzymes with Metallo-β-Lactamase Fold from Different Organisms.
- Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-like Encoding Genes in Candidate Phyla Radiation: Widespread and Highly Divergent Proteins with Potential Multifunctionality.
- Non-coding regions of nuclear-DNA-encoded mitochondrial genes and intergenic sequences are targeted by autoantibodies in breast cancer.
- MicroRNA Expression Prior to Biting in a Vector Mosquito Anticipates Physiological Processes Related to Energy Utilization, Reproduction and Immunity.
- Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of glyoxalase gene families in oat (Avena sativa) indicate their responses to abiotic stress during seed germination.
- Glyoxalase 2: Towards a Broader View of the Second Player of the Glyoxalase System.
- Lipid and Protein Oxidation of Brown Rice and Selenium-Rich Brown Rice during Storage.
- Quantification of cytosol and membrane proteins in rumen epithelium of sheep with low or high CH4 emission phenotype.