Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors predominantly developed in women using oral contraception. Here, exome sequencing identified... Show More
Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors predominantly developed in women using oral contraception. Here, exome sequencing identified novel recurrent somatic FRK mutations that induce constitutive kinase activity, STAT3 activation and cell proliferation sensitive to Src inhibitors. We also found new recurrent mutations activating JAK1, gp130 or ÃŸ-catenin. Chromosome copy-number and methylation profiling revealed patterns that correlated with specific gene mutations and tumor phenotypes. Finally, integrative analysis of HCA transformed to hepatocellular carcinoma revealed ÃŸ-catenin mutation as an early alteration and TERT promoter mutations as associated with the last step of the adenoma-carcinoma transition. In conclusion, we identified the genomic diversity in benign hepatocyte proliferation, new therapeutic targets and the key genomic determinants of the adenoma-carcinoma transformation sequence. Significance: Malignant transformation of benign adenoma into malignant carcinoma is frequently observed in several epithelial tumor types. Adenoma-carcinoma transition is crucial for the patient prognosis, however, little is known on the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we performed an integrated genomic analysis of hepatocellular adenomas (HCA). Among several novel gene mutations, we identified recurrent somatic mutation activating FRK, a Src-like kinase. FRK activating mutations induce STAT3 activation and cell proliferation that can be targeted by Src inhibitors. Focusing on malignant transformation of HCA in hepatocellular carcinoma, we identified CTNNB1 and TERT promoter mutation as early and late genomic events involved in adenoma-carcinoma transition. In conclusion, we propose new therapeutic targets and an identification of adenomas with the highest risk of malignant transformation. Highlights: - FRK is activated by somatic recurrent mutations. - FRK mutants promote cell proliferation sensitive to src inhibitors. - CTNNB1 activation is an early event in HCA transformation. - TERT promoter mutations are associated with adenoma-carcinoma transition.
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Whole exome sequencing data from 30 donors (46 tumors and 30 non-tumoral whole exome sequencing, paired-end, HiSeq 2000, Illumina) collected by the Inserm U674, PI Jessica Zucman-Rossi - Institut National du Cancer (INCa), PI Fabien Calvo, France.