The Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) Project characterizes DNA sequence variation, common and rare, for SNVs, short insertions and deletions (... Show More
The Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) Project characterizes DNA sequence variation, common and rare, for SNVs, short insertions and deletions (indels) and larger deletions in 769 individuals of Dutch ancestry selected from five biobanks under the auspices of the Dutch hub of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL). The samples come from a representative sample of 250 trio-families from all provinces in the Netherlands. The parent-offspring trios include adult individuals ranging in age from 19 to 87 years (mean=53 years; SD=16 years) from birth cohorts 1910-1994. Sequencing was done on blood-derived DNA from uncultured cells and accomplished coverage was 14-15x. Samples where contributed by LifeLines (http://lifelines.nl/lifelines-research/general), The Leiden Longevity Study (http://www.healthy-ageing.nl; http://www.langleven.net), The Netherlands Twin Registry (NTR: http://www.tweelingenregister. org), The Rotterdam studies, (http://www.erasmus-epidemiology.nl/rotterdamstudy) and the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations program (http://www.epib.nl/research/geneticepi/research.html#gip). The sequencing was carried out in collaboration with the Beijing Institute for Genomics (BGI). The analysis was done by a consortium lead by UMCG, LUMC, Erasmus MC, VU university and UMCU, see http://www.nlgenome.nl. Funding for the project was provided by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research under award number 184021007, dated July 9, 2009 and made available as a Rainbow Project of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure Netherlands (BBMRI-NL).
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This study includes 5 datasets:
Click on a Dataset Accession in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data
These files contain a total of 20.4M SNVs and the complete information output by the GATK UnifiedGenotyper v1.4 on all 767 GoNL samples. These calls are not trio-aware and all genotypes were reported regardless of their quality. Both filtered and passing calls are reported in these files. Filtered calls include (1) calls failing our VQSR threshold and (2) calls in the GoNL inaccessible genome.
The samples in this panel come from 250 families: 248 parents-child trios and 2 parent-child duos. As the children do not provide additional haplotypes or population information, they were excluded from the panel. The samples present in the release are composed of 248 couples, 2 single individuals and 1 sample composed from the 2 haplotypes from the duo's children transmitted by their missing parent. The composed sample is named gonl-220c_223c.
The files contain a total of 18.9M SNVs and 1.1M INDELs in autosomal chromosomes. They were generated by phasing/imputing the SNVs (a) and INDELs (b) using MVNCall. Only sites passing filters are reported. Sites filtered as part of the GoNL inaccessible genome were kept (but flagged as filtered) and still may contain true positive calls but should be used with care as they are located in parts of the genome that are less well captured (systematic under or over-covered or low-mapping quality)
We mapped the data to the UCSC human reference genome build 37 using BWA 0.5.9-r16. We first mapped each read pair separately using bwa aln. Then we used bwa sampe to map the paired reads together to a BAM9 file. The BAM file was then sorted by genomic position and indexed using PicardTools-1.32 SortSam. To prevent PCR artifacts from influencing the downstream analysis of our data, we used Picard to mark the duplicate reads, which were ignored in downstream analysis. We used GATK IndelRealigner on our data around known indels (from 1KG Pilot). The IndelRealigner creates all possible read alignments using the source and computes the likelihood of the data containing the indel based on the read pileup. Whenever the maximum likelihood contains an indel, the reads are realigned accordingly. Each base is associated with a phred-scaled base quality score. Calibration of Phred scores is crucial as they are used in some of the downstream analysis models. We used GATK to recalibrate the base qualities with respect to (i) the base cycle, (ii) original quality score, and (iii) dinucleotide context. To minimize issues stemming from mapping problems around indels, we decided to undergo a second round of indel realignment using the GATK IndelRealigner by family rather than by individual. For this second round, we considered two sources of possible indels: 1KG Phase 1 indels and indels aligned by BWA in the GoNL data.