Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive... Show More
Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum calcium level and the deleterious effects of hypercalcemia are the clinical manifestations of the disease. Up to 60% of patients develop multiple disease recurrences and although long-term survival is possible with palliative surgery, permanent remission is rarely achieved. Molecular drivers of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma have remained largely unknown. Previous studies, mostly based on familial cases of the disease, suggested a potential role for the tumor suppressor MEN1 and proto-oncogene RET in benign parathyroid tumorigenesis while the tumor suppressor HRPT2 and proto-oncogene CCND1 may also act as drivers in parathyroid cancer. Here, we report the complete genomic analysis of a sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. Mutational landscapes of the primary and recurrent tumor specimens were analyzed using high throughput sequencing technologies. Such molecular profiling allowed for identification of somatic mutations never previously identified in this malignancy. These included single nucleotide point mutations in well characterized cancer genes such as mTOR, MLL2, CDKN2C and PIK3CA. Comparison of acquired mutations in patient-matched primary and recurrent tumors revealed loss of PIK3CA activating mutation during the evolution of the tumor from the primary to the recurrence. Structural variations leading to gene fusions and regions of copy loss and gain were identified at a single-base resolution. Loss of short arm of chromosome 1 along with somatic mis-sense and truncating mutations in CDKN2C and THRAP3, respectively, provide new evidence for the potential role of these genes as tumor suppressors in parathyroid cancer. The key somatic mutations indentified in this study can serve as novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets.
Alternative Stable ID
Whole Genome Sequencing
This study includes 1 datasets:
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This dataset is compromised of 5 sequencing experiments from a single patient with sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. The samples include whole genome sequence of the primary tumor, the first recurrent tumor and peripheral blood. Whole transcriptome sequence of the first and second recurrent tumors are also included.