This DAC controls 225 datasets:

Dataset Accessionsort descending Technology Samples Description
EGAD00001000349 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 33 These samples are from locally advanced breast cancers that have been treated with epirubicin monotherapy before surgery. We will sequence some samples from patients with good response to the therapy and some with poor response to the therapy.
EGAD00001000350 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 17 We propose to definitively characterise the somatic genetics of a number of pediatric malignant tumours including ependymoma, high grade glioma and central nervous system primitive neurectodermal tumours through generation of comprehensive catalogues of somatic mutations by high coverage genome sequencing.
EGAD00001000354 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 81 Testing the feasibility of genome-scale sequencing in routinely collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer specimens versus matched fresh-frozen samples using targeted pulldown capture prior to Illumina sequencing.
EGAD00001000359 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 2 In this study we will sequence the transcriptome of Verified Cancer Cell lines. This will be married up to whole exome and whole genome sequencing data to establish a full catalog of the variations and mutations found.
EGAD00001000360 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 232 The genome-wide landscape of somatically acquired mutations in mesothelioma has not been deeply characterised to date, but advances in DNA sequencing technology now allow this to be addressed comprehensively. Harnessing massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms, we will identify somatically acquired point mutations in all coding regions of the genome from patients with mesothelioma. In addition, using paired-end sequencing, we will map copy number changes and genomic rearrangements from the same patients.
EGAD00001000361 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 3 This is a small pilot data set to test the feasibility of cDNA exomes across 1200 cancer cell line panel. cDNA exomes or Fus-seq is further explained in this studies Abstract.
EGAD00001000367 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 5 Genomic libraries (500 bps) will be generated from total genomic DNA derived from lung cancer patients and subjected to short paired end sequencing on the llumina platform. Paired reads will be mapped to build 37 of the human reference genome to facilitate the generation of genome wide copy number information, and the identification of novel rearranged cancer genes and gene fusions.
EGAD00001000369 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 3 We propose to definitively characterise the somatic genetics of a number of pediatric malignant tumours including ependymoma, high grade glioma and central nervous system primitive neurectodermal tumours through generation of comprehensive catalogues of somatic mutations by high coverage genome sequencing.
EGAD00001000388 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 15 Genomic libraries (500 bps) will be generated from total genomic DNA derived from lung cancer patients and subjected to short paired end sequencing on the llumina platform. Paired reads will be mapped to build 37 of the human reference genome to facilitate the generation of genome wide copy number information, and the identification of novel rearranged cancer genes and gene fusions.
EGAD00001000389 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 20 Cancer is driven by mutations in the genome. We will uncover the mutations that give rise to Ewing's sarcoma, a bone tumour that largely affects children. We will use second generation Illumina massively parallel sequencing, and bespoke software, to characterise the genomes and transcriptomes of Ewing's sarcoma tumours.
EGAD00001000392 Illumina MiSeq; 60 Agilent whole exome hybridisation capture was performed on genomic DNA derived from Chondrosarcoma cancer and matched normal DNA from the same patients. Next Generation sequencing performed on the resulting exome libraries and mapped to build 37 of the human reference genome to facilitate the identification of novel cancer genes. Now we aim to re find and validate the findings of those exome libraries using bespoke pulldown methods and sequencing the products.
EGAD00001000444 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 3 Cancer is driven my mutations in the genome. We will uncover the mutations that give rise to Ewing's sarcoma, a bone tumour that largely affects children. We will use second generation Illumina massively parallel sequencing, and bespoke software, to characterise the genomes and transcriptomes of Ewing's sarcoma tumours.
EGAD00001000606 Illumina MiSeq; 38 Background Massively parallel sequencing technology has transformed cancer genomics. It is now feasible, in a clinically relevant time-frame, for a clinically manageable cost, to screen DNA from patient tumours for mutations essentially genome-wide. The challenge for personalised medicine will be to increase the sample size to thousands or tens of thousands of well-characterised cases in order to attain sufficient statistical power to stratify patients accurately across the complexity and genomic heterogeneity expected for most of the common tumour types. Currently, whole genome sequencing on this scale is not feasible, and targeted sequencing of relevant portions of the genome will be required. Pilot data We have developed protocols for large-scale, multiplexed sequencing of 100-200 genes in thousands of samples. Essentially, using robotic technology, genomic DNA from the cancer specimen is processed into sequencing libraries with unique DNA barcodes, thereby allowing sequencing reads to be attributed to the sample they derive from. Currently, these sequencing libraries can be generated in a 96-well format using fully automated protocols, and we are exploring methods to expand this to a 384-well format. The sequencing libraries are pooled and hybridized to custom sets of RNA baits representing the genomic regions of interest. Sequencing of the pulled-down libraries is done in pools of 48-96 samples per lane of an Illumina Hi-Seq. This protocol is already implemented at the Sanger Institute. We have published proof that somatic mutations in novel cancer genes can be identified from exome-wide sequencing. In unpublished pilot data, we have established the feasibility of robotic library production, custom pull-down, and multiplexed sequencing of barcoded libraries for 100 known myeloid cancer genes across 760 myelodysplasia samples. Highlights of the data thus far analysed reveal that the coverage is remarkably even between samples; when 96 samples are run, average coverage per lane of sequencing is ~250, with 90-95% of targeted exons covered by >25 reads; known mutations can be discovered in the data set; and the protocol is amenable to whole genome amplified DNA. The bioinformatic algorithms for identification of substitutions and indels in pull-down data are well-established; we have pilot data proving that copy number changes, LOH and genomic rearrangements in specific regions of interest can also be identified by tiling of baits across the relevant loci. Proposal We propose to apply this methodology to 10000 samples from patients with AML enrolled in clinical trials over the last 10-20 years. Oncogenic point mutations and potentially genomic rearrangements will be identified, and linked to clinical outcome data, with a view to undertaking the following sorts of analyses: ? Identification of co-occurrence, mutual exclusivity and clusters of driver mutations. ? Correlation of prognosis with driver mutations and potentially gene-gene interactions ? Exploration of genomic markers of drug response Ultimately, we would like to be in a position to release the mutation data together with matched clinical outcome data to genuine medical researchers via a controlled access approach, possibly within the COSMIC framework (www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/). The vision here is to generate a portal whereby a clinician faced with an AML patient and his / her mutational profile can obtain a ?personalised? prediction of outcome, together with a fair assessment of the uncertainty of the estimate. With a sufficient sample size, there would also be the potential to develop decision support algorithms for therapeutic choices based on such data.
EGAD00001000624 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 908 Multifocality or multicentricity in breast cancer may be defined as the presence of two or more tumor foci within a single quadrant of the breast or within different quadrants of the same breast, respectively. This original classification of the breast cancer as multicentric or multifocal was based on the assumption that cancers arising in the same quadrant were more likely to arise from the same ductal structures than those occurring in separate areas of the breast. The problem with these definitions is that the ?quadrants? of the breast are arbitrary external designations, as no internal boundaries do exist. This project will therefore focus both on synchronous multifocal and multicentric tumors. The incidence of multifocal and multicentric breast cancers was reported to be between 13 and 75% depending on the definition used, the extent of the pathologic sampling of the breast and whether in situ disease is considered evidence of multicentricity (1). Although this incidence is variable, those figures show that it is a frequent phenomenon. Multiple (multifocal/multicentric) breast carcinomas, especially when occurring in the same breast, represent a real challenge for both pathologists and clinicians in terms of identifying the cellular origin and the best therapeutic management of the cancer. Multifocality or multicentricity has been associated with a number of more aggressive features including an increased rate of regional lymph node metastases and adverse patient outcome when compared with unifocal tumors (2-3), and a possible increased risk of local recurrence following breast conserving surgery (4). For the moment, the literature is divided on whether there is a corresponding impact on survival outcomes. Today, the current convention to stage and to treat multifocal and multicentric tumors is the classical tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging guidelines with which tumor size is assessed by the largest tumor focus without taking other foci of disease into consideration. If some papers, as the recent one from Lynch and colleagues, support the current staging convention (3), others, however, as Boyages et al. suggested that aggregate size and not the size of the largest lesion should be considered in order to refine the prognostic assessment of those tumors (5). On the top of that, the question whether multifocal/multicentric carcinomas are due to the spread of a single carcinoma throughout the breast or is due to multiple carcinomas arising simultaneously has been a matter of debate. Some studies suggested that multifocal breast cancer may result from either intramammary spread from a single primary tumor or multiple synchronous primary tumors; whereas others suggest that multiple breast carcinomas always arise from the same clone (6-8). Recently, Pietri and colleagues analyzed the biological characterization of a series of 113 multifocal/multicentric breast cancers (8) which were diagnosed over a 5-year period. The expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors, Ki-67 proliferative index, expression of HER2 and tumor grading were prospectively determined in each tumor focus, and mismatches among foci were recorded. Mismatches in ER status were present in 5 (4.4%) cases and PgR in 18 (15.9%) cases. Mismatches in tumor grading were present in 21 cases (18.6%), proliferative index (Ki-67) in 17 (15%) cases and HER2 status in 11 (9.7%) cases. Interestingly, this heterogeneity among foci has led to 14 (12.4%) patients receiving different adjuvant treatments compared with what would have been indicated if we had only taken into account the biologic status of the primary tumor. This study therefore showed that differences in biological characteristics of multifocal/multicentric lesions play a crucial role in the adjuvant treatment decision making process. In this study, we will concentrate on a larger series of patients with multifocal invasive ductal breast cancer lesions. We aim at: 1. Evaluating the incidence of multifocality according to the different breast cancer molecular subtypes (ER-/HER2-, HER2+, ER+/HER2-). 2. Evaluating the incidence of multifocality in patients with hereditary breast cancer disease (presence of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations). Moreover, we would like to investigate if multifocal lesions with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations exhibit a characteristic combination of substitution mutation signatures and a distinctive profile of deletions as demonstrated recently by Nik-Zainal and colleagues (9). 3. Correlating multifocality with clinical information in order to define its influence on patients? survival (DFS and OS). 4. Carrying high coverage targeted gene sequencing of driver cancer genes and genes whose mutation is of therapeutic importance in order to compare clinically-relevant genetic differences between several multifocal breast cancer lesions. 5. Evaluating the impact of the distance between the different lesions on the clinical outcome but also on the genetic differences. 6. Comparing gene expression patterns between several multifocal breast cancer lesions and correlate them with the results of the targeted genes screen. 7. Characterizing the genomic and transcriptomic status of cancer related genes in metastatic lesions (local recurrence, positive lymph node or distant metastatic sites) from the same multifocal invasive ductal breast cancer patients in order to evaluate the consequence of genomic and transcriptomic heterogeneity of multifocal lesions on metastatic lesions. Multiple (multifocal/multicentric) breast carcinomas, especially when occurring in the same breast, represent a real challenge for both pathologists and clinicians in terms of identifying the cellular origin and the best therapeutic choice. This project has the potential to identify genetic/transcriptomic differences existing between several lesions constituting multifocal breast cancers, which in the routine clinical practice are usually considered to be homogeneous among them. We foresee validating significant results in a larger series of patients and this, in turn, could have a remarkable impact on the treatment and clinical management of multifocal breast cancers. Indeed, we hope to provide some evidence whether or not each focus matters in multifocal and multicentric breast cancer to define the adequate therapeutic approach, especially in the context of targeted therapies. The work to be done at Sanger will be target gene screen pooling of 1400 samples.
EGAD00001000630 Illumina HiSeq 2000; 7 In this study we will sequence the transcriptome of Verified Matched Pair Cancer Cell line tumour samples. This will be married up to whole exome and whole genome sequencing data to establish a full catalog of the variations and mutations found.

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