E-GEOD-56938 - Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development
Released on 7 May 2014, last updated on 13 August 2014
During differentiation of embryonic stem cells, chromatin reorganizes to establish cell type specific expression programs. Here, we have dissected the linkages between DNA methylation (5mC), hydroxymethylation (5hmC), nucleosome repositioning and binding of the transcription factor CTCF during this process. By integrating MNase-seq and ChIP-seq experiments in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and their differentiated counterparts with biophysical modeling, we find that the interplay between these factors depends on their large-scale genomic context. The mostly unmethylated CpG islands have a reduced nucleosome occupancy and are enriched in cell type-independent binding sites for CTCF. The few remaining methylated CpG dinucleotides are preferentially associated with nucleosomes. In contrast, outside of CpG islands most CpGs are methylated and their average density oscillates so that it is highest in the linker region between nucleosomes. Outside CpG islands binding of TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, is associated with labile, MNase-sensitive nucleosomes. Such nucleosomes are poised for eviction in ESCs and become stably bound in differentiated cells where the level of TET1 and 5hmCs goes down. In particular, this has a dramatic effect at variable CTCF sites enriched outside CpG islands, that are occupied by CTCF in ESCs but loose CTCF during differentiation. To rationalize this cell type dependent targeting of CTCF binding in competition with the histone octamer, we have developed a quantitative biophysical model, which allowed predicting differences in CTCF binding due to TET1/5hmC/5mC-dependent nucleosome repositioning. MNase-seq experiments for analysis of mononucleosomes were conducted as described previously (Teif et al. Nature Struct. Mol. Biol., 2012). In addition, a dinucleosome fraction also was gel purified and sequenced. Briefly, embryonic stem cells from 129P2/Ola mice were cultured in ESGRO complete medium (Millipore), harvested and resuspended in low salt buffer (10 mM Hepes, pH 8, 10 mM KCl, 0.5 mM DTT) at 4 °C. After disruption of the cells with a douncer the nuclei were collected by centrifugation and washed once with the MNase Buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.5, 10 mM CaCl2), resuspended in the MNase Buffer and digested with 0.5 units MNase per microliter (Fermentas) and incubation for 6–11 minutes at 37 °C. The MNase digestion was stopped by putting the samples on ice and adding EDTA to a concentration of 10 mM. After digestion with 0.1 µg µl–1 RNase A (Fermentas) and removal of protein by phenol and chloroform extraction, the DNA was ethanol precipitated and the resulting DNA pellet was dissolved in H2O. DNA fragments corresponding to mononucleosomes or dinucleosomes were separated on a 2 % agarose gel using an E-Gel electrophoresis system (Life Technologies). The libraries for sequencing were prepared according to the standard Illumina protocol. High-throughput paired-end sequencing of at least 50 bp read length was performed on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform at the DKFZ sequencing core facility in Heidelberg, Germany. We obtained about 150 million nucleosome positions per sequencing reaction. ChIP-seq experiments were conducted as described previously (Teif et al. 2012). For each sample, 1 x 106 cells were cross-linked with 1% PFA and cell nuclei were prepared using a swelling buffer (25 mM Hepes, pH 7.8, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM KCl, 0.1% NP-40, 1 mM DTT). Chromatin was sheared to mononucleosomal fragments. After IgG preclearance the sheared chromatin was incubated with 4 µg of either H3K9me3 (Abcam ab8898) or H3K4me3 (Abcam ab8580) antibody over night. After washes with sonication (10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 8.0, 200 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.5% N-lauroylsarcosine, 0.1% Na–deoxycholate), high-salt-buffer (50 mM Hepes pH 7.9, 500 mM NaCl, 1mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100, 0.1% Na–deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS), lithium buffer (20 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.0, 1 mM EDTA, 250 mM LiCl, 0.5% NP-40, 0.5% Na–deoxycholate) and 10 mM Tris–HCl, chromatin was eluted from the protein G magnetic beads and the crosslink was reversed over night. After RNase A and proteinase K digestion, DNA was purified and cloned in a barcoded sequencing library for the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform (single reads of 50 bp length).
Karsten Rippe, Vladimir B Teif
Nucleosome repositioning links DNA (de)methylation and differential CTCF binding during stem cell development. Teif VB, Beshnova DA, Vainshtein Y, Marth C, Mallm JP, Hï¿½fer T, Rippe K. , Europe PMC 24812327