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E-GEOD-55518 - Hepatic transcriptome analysis of male and female Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) exposed to a progestin and anti-progesterone reveals the mode of action of endocrine disruption of synthetic steroids in an aquatic organism

Released on 1 September 2014, last updated on 6 September 2014
Gambusia holbrooki
Samples (30)
Array (1)
Protocols (7)
Major classes of hormone mimics that have been studied include environmental estrogens and androgens, but recent studies have also demonstrated the significant impacts of natural and synthetic progesterones in the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the molecular and physiological impacts of progestin, anti-progestin, and mixture exposures in the Eastern Mosquitofish (G. holbrooki). By comparison of gene expression profiles and modulated biological processes in the three groups, it was determined that mifepristone acts more as a progestin than as an anti-progestin, as has also been demonstrated in other species of fish. This work contributes to the overall knowledge of the impacts of this class of chemical contaminats on aquatic organisms, which are a sentinel species for pollutants as aquatic ecosystems often become a reservoir for anthropogenic contaminants. G. holbrooki adult males and females were exposed to one of the following conditions: vehicle control (ethanol), 100 ng/L of levonorgestrel, 100 ng/L of mifepristone, or a mixture of both levonorgestrel and mifepristone. All exposures were conducted for 48 hours with water changed and chemicals renewed daily. Fish were anesthetized using 100 mg/L Benzocaine (Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate). Livers were removed and stored in RNAlater (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) overnight at 4 C before storage at -80 C. RNA was isolated from the livers using TRIzol (Invitrogen, Grand Island, USA), hydrated using RNAsecure (Ambion, Grand Island, USA), and DNase treated using the Turbo DNA-free kit (Ambion, Grand Island, USA). Four oocyte-development stage-matched RNA samples per treatment were evaluated for RNA integrity using the 2100 BioAnalyzer (Agilent, Santa Clara, USA). The range of RIN values was 8.2-9.6
Experiment type
transcription profiling by array 
Erica Karin Brockmeier <>, Brockmeier Erica, Denslow Nancy
Investigation descriptionE-GEOD-55518.idf.txt
Sample and data relationshipE-GEOD-55518.sdrf.txt
Raw data (1)
Processed data (1)
Array designA-GEOD-16784.adf.txt