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E-GEOD-54082 - Elimination of hydrogenase post-translational modification blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum
Released on 15 January 2014, last updated on 20 January 2014
Clostridium thermocellum DSM 1237
Clostridium thermocellum is a leading candidate organism for implementing a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy for biofuel production due to its native ability to rapidly consume cellulose and its existing ethanol production pathway. C. thermocellum converts cellulose and cellobiose to lactate, formate, acetate, H2, ethanol, amino acids, and other products. Elimination of the pathways leading to products such as H2 could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production. Rather than delete each hydrogenase individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), which is involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes by assembling the active site. This functionally inactivated all three Fe-Fe hydrogenases simultaneously, as they were unable to make active enzymes. In the ∆hydG mutant, the [NiFe] hydrogenase-encoding ech was also deleted to obtain a mutant that functionally lacks all hydrogenase. The ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold in ∆hydG∆ech compared to wild type, and H2 production was below the detection limit. Interestingly, ∆hydG and ∆hydG∆ech exhibited improved growth in the presence of acetate in the medium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis reveal that genes related to sulfate transport and metabolism were up-regulated in the presence of added acetate in ∆hydG, resulting in altered sulfur metabolism. Further genomic analysis of this strain revealed a mutation in the bi-functional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase adhE gene, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities, whereas the wild type strain can only utilize NADH. This is the exact same adhE mutation found in ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, but ∆hydG∆ech is not more ethanol tolerant than the wild type. Targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach to target multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering. A seventeen array study using total RNA recovered from fermentation cultures of three strains (parental, ∆hydG and ∆hydG∆ech) of Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313. Cells were harvested at an OD 0.4-0.5 from cultures grown in the presence of additional 5mM acetate and compared to untreated controls. At least two biological replicates were performed for each treatment and control condition.
transcription profiling by array
Dawn Marie Klingeman <email@example.com>, Adam M Guss, Charlotte M Wilson, Daniel G Olson, Dawn M Klingeman, Lee R Lynd, Ranjita Biswas, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Steven D Brown, Tianyong Zhang