E-GEOD-45395 - Large inverted duplications form via a hairpin mechanism

Released on 3 April 2013, last updated on 3 June 2014
Homo sapiens
Samples (100)
Arrays (13)
Protocols (6)
Inverted duplications are a common type of copy number variation (CNV) in germline and somatic genomes. Large duplications that include many genes can lead to both neurodevelopmental phenotypes in children and gene amplifications in tumors. There are several models for inverted duplication formation, most of which include a dicentric chromosome intermediate followed by breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles, but the mechanisms that give rise to the inverted dicentric chromosome in most inverted duplications remain unknown. Here we have combined high-resolution array CGH, custom sequence capture, next-generation sequencing, and long-range PCR to analyze the breakpoints of 50 nonrecurrent inverted duplications in patients with intellectual disability, autism, and congenital anomalies. Sequence analysis of breakpoint junctions reveals a normal-copy disomic spacer between inverted and non-inverted copies of the duplication. Further, short inverted repeats are present at the boundary of the disomic spacer and the inverted duplication. These data support a mechanism of inverted duplication formation whereby a chromosome with a double-strand break intrastrand pairs with itself to form a “hairpin” intermediate that, after DNA replication, produces a dicentric inverted chromosome with a disomic spacer corresponding to the site of the hairpin. We also find evidence of short insertions and inversions at inverted duplication junctions, consistent with a DNA replication-based CNV mechanism. This process can give rise to inverted duplications adjacent to terminal deletions, inverted duplications juxtaposed to translocations, and inverted duplication ring chromosomes High resolution array CGH; two-color experiment, clinical patient vs. normal control gDNA; sex mis-matched
Experiment type
comparative genomic hybridization by array