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E-GEOD-34716 - Small Marine Neurotoxin Elicits Common Antibody Response in Zebrafish and Sea Lions

Released on 3 January 2013, last updated on 2 June 2014
Danio rerio
Samples (72)
Array (1)
Protocols (7)
The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid, is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant health threat to marine mammal and human populations. Currently, diagnostic tools to assess exposure are not available, yet concerns regarding health impacts associated with low-level repetitive exposure are growing. Here we applied a laboratory zebrafish model to assess exposure to asymptomatic doses of domoic acid in a nine-month low-level repetitive exposure study. Blood analyses, whole brain gene expression, and functional lymphocyte proliferation assays analyzed at 11 time points revealed a quantifiable antibody response that was temporally correlated with upregulated immune response genes and significantly increased spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation. The antibody response was further validated in field exposed California sea lions and provides the first biomarker for chronic exposure assessment. Time series domoic acid exposure of zebrafish.
Experiment type
transcription profiling by array 
Richard Beyer <>, David J Marcinek, Elizabeth R Frame, Emma Hiolski, Kathi A Lefebvre, Richard P Beyer, Theodor K Bammler
A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity. Lefebvre KA, Frame ER, Gulland F, Hansen JD, Kendrick PS, Beyer RP, Bammler TK, Farin FM, Hiolski EM, Smith DR, Marcinek DJ. , PMID:22567140