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E-GEOD-31691 - Xenopus M-phase extract treated induced pluripotent stem cells
Released on 21 November 2011, last updated on 25 June 2012
Transfer of somatic cell nuclei to enucleated eggs or ectopic expression of specific transcription factors are two different reprogramming strategies used to generate pluripotent cells from differentiated cells. However, they are poorly efficient and other unknown factors might be required to increase their success rate. Here, we show that Xenopus egg extracts at the metaphase stage (M phase) have a strong reprogramming activity on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). First, they reset replication properties of MEF nuclei toward a replication profile characteristic of early development and they erase several epigenetic marks, such as trimethylation of H3K9, H3K4 and H4K20. Second, when MEFs are reversibly permeabilized in the presence of M phase Xenopus egg extracts, they show a transient increase in cell proliferation, form colonies and start to express specific pluripotency markers. Finally, transient exposure of MEF nuclei to M phase Xenopus egg extracts increases the success of nuclear transfer to enucleated mouse oocytes and strongly synergize with the production of pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of transcription factors. The mitotic stage of the egg extract is crucial as neither of these effects is detected when using interphasic Xenopus egg extracts. Our data demonstrate that mitosis is essential to make mammalian somatic nuclei prone to reprogramming and that, surprisingly, the heterologous Xenopus system has features that are conserved enough to remodel mammalian nuclei. MEF cells were infected by retroviruses encoding for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc and, then reversibly permeabilized and treated with Xenopus M-phase extract. All samples of each cell type (e.g. untreated MEF, ES cells and M-iPS cells) were made in triplicates. Total RNAs were extracted with RNeasy kit and hybridized on Nimblegen MM9 microarrays.
transcription profiling by array
Marcel Mechali <email@example.com>, Aurore Puy, Isabelle Peiffer, Olivier Ganier
Synergic reprogramming of mammalian cells by combined exposure to mitotic Xenopus egg extracts and transcription factors. Ganier O, Bocquet S, Peiffer I, Brochard V, Arnaud P, Puy A, Jouneau A, Feil R, Renard JP, Méchali M. , PMID:21908712