Please note that we have stopped the regular imports of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data into ArrayExpress. This may not be the latest version of this experiment.
E-GEOD-22373 - Monocyte vs Macrophage Study
Submitted on 14 June 2010, released on 7 July 2010, last updated on 1 May 2014
Human intestinal macrophages contribute to tissue homeostasis in noninflamed mucosa through profound down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Here, we show that this down-regulation extends to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine release, as intestinal macrophages expressed TLR3-TLR9 but did not release cytokines in response to TLR-specific ligands. Likely contributing to this unique functional profile, intestinal macrophages expressed markedly down-regulated adapter proteins MyD88 and Toll interleukin receptor 1 domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon beta, which together mediate all TLR MyD88-dependent and -independent NF-kappaB signaling, did not phosphorylate NF-kappaB p65 or Smad-induced IkappaBalpha, and did not translocate NF-kappaB into the nucleus. Importantly, transforming growth factor-beta released from intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma) induced identical down-regulation in the NF-kappaB signaling and function of blood monocytes, the exclusive source of intestinal macrophages. Our findings implicate stromal transforming growth factor-beta-induced dysregulation of NF-kappaB proteins and Smad signaling in the differentiation of pro-inflammatory blood monocytes into noninflammatory intestinal macrophages. Comparison of unstimulated monocytes and macrophages, and flagellin stimulated monocytes and macrophages.
transcription profiling by array
William Hu <email@example.com>, Michael D George, William K Hu
Inflammation anergy in human intestinal macrophages is due to Smad-induced IkappaBalpha expression and NF-kappaB inactivation. Smythies LE, Shen R, Bimczok D, Novak L, Clements RH, Eckhoff DE, Bouchard P, George MD, Hu WK, Dandekar S, Smith PD.